1. We studied the mechanism of voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium current by norepinephrine (NE) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in adult rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. 2. The voltage dependence of inhibition is manifest in the reversal of inhibition by strong depolarization. We… (More)
he persistence of illegal activity throughout human history and some of its apparent regularities have long attracted the attention of economists. For example, Adam Smith (1776 , p. 670) observed that crime and the demand for protection from crime are both motivated by the accumulation of property. William Paley (1785 ) presented a penetrating… (More)
Leamer and McManus applied Extreme Bound Analysis (EBA) in an empirical study of the deterrent effects of capital punishment and other penalties. Their analysis has questioned the validity of the deterrence hypothesis. The thrust of our paper is twofold: First, by applying EBA to well known econometric models of demand, production, and human-capital… (More)
Public services and goods can provide relevant inputs to private productive activities. Modern States organize the production of these inputs on the basis of taxes collected from the community. When this process is affected by bureaucrats' corruption the efficiency of public expenditure decreases. In this paper we deal with the long-run consequences of this… (More)
Noel for helpful discussions. I wish to thank Miana Plesca for able research assistance. The usual disclaimer applies.
When the quality of a good varies, quantity in physical units may be a very misleading measure of total consumption. In this paper it is argued that differences in quality are a distinguishing feature of the market for physicians' services. We develop a model to analyze properties of demand functions for the quantity and quality of physicians' services and… (More)
This paper estimates the exogenous effect of schooling on reduced incidence of hypertension. Using the changes in the minimum school-leaving age law in the United Kingdom from age 14 to 15 in 1947, and from age 15 to 16 in 1973, as sources of exogenous variation in schooling, the regression discontinuity and IV-probit estimates imply that, for the first law… (More)
The Working Papers in this series have not undergone peer review or been edited by USC. The series is intended to make results of CESR and Schaeffer Center research widely available, in preliminary form, to encourage discussion and input from the research community before publication in a formal, peer-reviewed journal. CESR-Schaeffer working papers can be… (More)