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This report presents the historical experience, clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis, and pathogenesis of gliosarcoma described to date in the English literature. PubMed query of term "gliosarcoma" was performed, followed by a rigorous review of cited literature. Articles selected for analysis included: (1) case reports of gliosarcoma, (2) review(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) historically has been considered an immune-privileged organ, lacking a lymphatic system and shielded from the circulatory system by the blood-brain barrier. Microglia are an abundant portion of the CNS cell population, comprising 5% to 20% of the total glial cell population, and are as numerous as neurons. A crucial function(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) has evolved as an immune-privileged site to protect its vital functions from damaging immune-mediated inflammation. There must be a CNS-adapted system of surveillance that continuously evaluates local changes in the nervous system and communicates to the peripheral immune system during an injury or a disease. Recent advances(More)
OBJECT The tumor microenvironment in astrocytomas is composed of a variety of cell types, including infiltrative inflammatory cells that are dynamic in nature, potentially reflecting tumor biology. In this paper the authors demonstrate that characterization of the intratumoral inflammatory infiltrate can distinguish high-grade glioblastoma from low-grade(More)
OBJECT Although secondary gliosarcoma after treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme has been described, little is known of these rare tumors. In this article the authors review the literature on secondary gliosarcoma, with attention to clinical course and pathological features. METHODS A PubMed search of the key word intracranial "gliosarcoma" with(More)
This article provides historical background and current research involving the use of bevacizumab for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. Although bevacizumab, approved by the Food and Drug Administration, prolongs glioblastoma progression free survivial, decreases tumor vascularization, and reduces permeability of vessels, it does not seem to prolong(More)
Gangliogliomas are rare central nervous system tumors, most commonly affecting children and young adults. Chronic seizure and epilepsy are the most frequent presentation of patients with gangliogliomas. In this report, we review the modern literature regarding the effects of early surgical intervention on the clinical outcome of patients with ganglioglioma.(More)
OBJECTIVE Facial nerve preservation is a critical measure of clinical outcome after vestibular schwannoma treatment. Gamma Knife radiosurgery has evolved into a practical treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma patients, with several reported series from a variety of centers. In this study, we report the results of an objective analysis of reported(More)
OBJECT Observation is an important consideration when discussing management options for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). Most data regarding clinical outcomes after conservative management come from modestsized series performed at individual centers. The authors performed an analysis of the published literature on the natural history of VSs with(More)
A growing body of evidence supports the significant interplay between the immune system and glioma pathogenesis. Here we investigate whether the extent of local glioma-associated CD8+ T-cell infiltrate at initial presentation correlates with long-term survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The study was conducted by the University of(More)