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The central nervous system (CNS) has evolved as an immune-privileged site to protect its vital functions from damaging immune-mediated inflammation. There must be a CNS-adapted system of surveillance that continuously evaluates local changes in the nervous system and communicates to the peripheral immune system during an injury or a disease. Recent advances(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) historically has been considered an immune-privileged organ, lacking a lymphatic system and shielded from the circulatory system by the blood-brain barrier. Microglia are an abundant portion of the CNS cell population, comprising 5% to 20% of the total glial cell population, and are as numerous as neurons. A crucial function(More)
OBJECT The tumor microenvironment in astrocytomas is composed of a variety of cell types, including infiltrative inflammatory cells that are dynamic in nature, potentially reflecting tumor biology. In this paper the authors demonstrate that characterization of the intratumoral inflammatory infiltrate can distinguish high-grade glioblastoma from low-grade(More)
Gangliogliomas are rare central nervous system tumors, most commonly affecting children and young adults. Chronic seizure and epilepsy are the most frequent presentation of patients with gangliogliomas. In this report, we review the modern literature regarding the effects of early surgical intervention on the clinical outcome of patients with ganglioglioma.(More)
OBJECTIVE Facial nerve preservation is a critical measure of clinical outcome after vestibular schwannoma treatment. Gamma Knife radiosurgery has evolved into a practical treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma patients, with several reported series from a variety of centers. In this study, we report the results of an objective analysis of reported(More)
A growing body of evidence supports the significant interplay between the immune system and glioma pathogenesis. Here we investigate whether the extent of local glioma-associated CD8+ T-cell infiltrate at initial presentation correlates with long-term survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The study was conducted by the University of(More)
OBJECT Observation is an important consideration when discussing management options for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). Most data regarding clinical outcomes after conservative management come from modestsized series performed at individual centers. The authors performed an analysis of the published literature on the natural history of VSs with(More)
Radiosurgery has evolved into an effective alternative to microsurgical resection in the treatment of patients with vestibular schwannoma. We performed a systematic analysis of the literature in English on the radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannoma patients. A total of 254 published studies reported assessable and quantifiable outcome data of(More)
OBJECT Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has evolved into a practical alternative to open microsurgical resection in the treatment of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). Hearing preservation rates in GKS series suggest very favorable outcomes without the possible acute morbidity associated with open microsurgery. To mitigate institutional and practitioner(More)
This article provides historical and recent perspectives related to the use of temozolomide for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Temozolomide has quickly become part of the standard of care for the modern treatment of stage IV glioblastoma multiforme since its approval in 2005. Yet despite its improvements from previous therapies, median survival(More)