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In angiosperm plants, the etioplast-chloroplast transition is light-dependent. A key factor in this process is the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA), which catalyzes the light-induced reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. The import pathway of the precursor protein prePORA into chloroplasts was analyzed in vivo and in vitro by using(More)
The chloroplast outer membrane contains different, specialized pores that are involved in highly specific traffic processes from the cytosol into the chloroplast and vice versa. One representative member of these channels is the outer envelope protein 16 (OEP16), a cation-selective high conductance channel with high selectivity for amino acids. Here we(More)
Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are porin-type β-barrel diffusion pores. They are prominent in the outer membrane of mitochondria and facilitate metabolite exchange between the organelle and the cytosol. Here we studied the subcellular distribution of a plant VDAC-like protein between plastids and mitochondria in green and non-green tissue. Using(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatocytes in culture are a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms involved in the response of the liver to cytokines. However, it is well established that hepatocytes cultured on monolayers of dried stiff collagen dedifferentiate, losing specialized liver functions. In this study, we show that hepatocyte dedifferentiation is a reversible(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The profibrogenic role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in liver has mostly been attributed to hepatic stellate cell activation and excess matrix synthesis. Hepatocytes are believed to contribute to increased rates of apoptosis. METHODS Primary hepatocyte outgrowths and AML12 cells were used as an in vitro model to detect(More)
Histological alterations often constitute a fingerprint of toxicity and diseases. The extent to which these alterations are cause or consequence of compromised organ function, and the underlying mechanisms involved is a matter of intensive research. In particular, liver disease is often associated with altered tissue microarchitecture, which in turn may(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS In injured liver, TGF-β affects all hepatic cell types and participates in wound healing and fibrogenesis. TGF-β downstream signaling is highly complex and cell type dependent, involving Smad and non-Smad signaling cascades thus requiring tight regulation. Endocytosis has gained relevance as important mechanism to control signaling(More)
• Alternative models to primary human hepatocytes, including cell lines and stem cell-derived hepatocytes • Hepatocyte in vitro systems to study apoptosis and DILI • Hepatocytes in toxicogenomics • Mathematical modeling and systems biology in hepato-cyte research The article is supplemented by an electronic appendix with standard operating procedures of the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Adverse alcohol effects in the liver involve oxidative metabolism, fat deposition and release of fibrogenic mediators, including TGF-beta. The work presents an assessment of liver damaging cross-talk between ethanol and TGF-beta in hepatocytes. METHODS To investigate TGF-beta effects on hepatocytes, microarray analyses were performed and(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major public health problem due to increased incidence, late diagnosis and limited treatment options. TGF-β is known to provide cytostatic signals during early stages of liver damage and regeneration, but exerts tumor promoting effects in onset and progression of liver cancer. To understand the mechanistic background of(More)