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In this paper we describe the search strategies developed for docking flexible molecules to macomolecular sites that are incorporated into the widely distributed DOCK software, version 4.0. The search strategies include incremental construction and random conformation search and utilize the existing Coulombic and Lennard-Jones grid-based scoring function.(More)
The DOCK program explores possible orientations of a molecule within a macromolecular active site by superimposing atoms onto precomputed site points. Here we compare a number of different search methods, including an exhaustive matching algorithm based on a single docking graph. We evaluate the performance of each method by screening a small database of(More)
Predicting the structures of protein-protein complexes is a difficult problem owing to the topographical and thermodynamic complexity of these structures. Past efforts in this area have focussed on fitting the interacting proteins together using rigid body searches, usually with the conformations of the proteins as they occur in crystal structure complexes.(More)
We report on the development and validation of a new version of DOCK. The algorithm has been rewritten in a modular format, which allows for easy implementation of new scoring functions, sampling methods and analysis tools. We validated the sampling algorithm with a test set of 114 protein-ligand complexes. Using an optimized parameter set, we are able to(More)
Most drugs have been discovered in random screens or by exploiting information about macromolecular receptors. One source of this information is in the structures of critical proteins and nucleic acids. The structure-based approach to design couples this information with specialized computer programs to propose novel enzyme inhibitors and other therapeutic(More)
We explore the question of what are the best ligands for macromolecular targets. A survey of experimental data on a large number of the strongest-binding ligands indicates that the free energy of binding increases with the number of nonhydrogen atoms with an initial slope of approximately -1.5 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.18 J) per atom. For ligands that contain(More)
We have used intramolecular cross-linking, MS, and sequence threading to rapidly identify the fold of a model protein, bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Its tertiary structure was probed with a lysine-specific cross-linking agent, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)). Sites of cross-linking were determined by tryptic peptide mapping by using(More)