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BACKGROUND Meta-analyses of antidepressant medications have reported only modest benefits over placebo treatment, and when unpublished trial data are included, the benefit falls below accepted criteria for clinical significance. Yet, the efficacy of the antidepressants may also depend on the severity of initial depression scores. The purpose of this(More)
Placebo analgesia was produced by conditioning trials wherein heat induced experimental pain was surreptitiously reduced in order to test psychological factors of expectancy and desire for pain reduction as possible mediators of placebo analgesia. The magnitudes of placebo effects were assessed after these conditioning trials and during trials wherein(More)
Hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestibility were investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, nonhypnotic suggestibility was suppressed when measured after hypnotic suggestibility, whereas hypnotic suggestibility was not affected by the order of assessment. Experiment 2 confirmed a small but significant effect of hypnosis on suggestibility when nonhypnotic(More)
The 'default mode' network refers to cortical areas that are active in the absence of goal-directed activity. In previous studies, decreased activity in the 'default mode' has always been associated with increased activation in task-relevant areas. We show that the induction of hypnosis can reduce anterior default mode activity during rest without(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether placebo effects can experimentally be separated into the response to three components-assessment and observation, a therapeutic ritual (placebo treatment), and a supportive patient-practitioner relationship-and then progressively combined to produce incremental clinical improvement in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.(More)
This article reports an analysis of the efficacy data submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for approval of the 6 most widely prescribed antidepressants approved between 1987 and 1999. Approximately 80% of the response to medication was duplicated in placebo control groups, and the mean difference between drug and placebo was approximately 2(More)
We examined the effects of suggestion on Stroop interference in highly suggestible individuals. Participants completed the Stroop task with and without a suggestion to perceive Stroop words as meaningless symbols. Half the participants were given this suggestion in hypnosis, and half were given the suggestion without the induction of hypnosis. Suggestion(More)
In this study, a well established expectancy manipulation model was combined with a novel placebo intervention, a validated sham acupuncture needle, to investigate the brain network involved in placebo analgesia. Sixteen subjects completed the experiment. We found that after placebo acupuncture treatment, subjective pain rating reduction (pre minus post) on(More)