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Classical electrophysiology and contemporary crystallography suggest that the activation gate of voltage-dependent channels is on the intracellular side, but a more extracellular "pore gate" has also been proposed. We have used the voltage dependence of block by extracellular Y(3+) as a tool to locate the activation gate of the alpha1G (Ca(V)3.1) T-type(More)
A number of studies have shown that glucose tolerance falls with decreasing birth weight and that people with low birth weight and high body mass index (BMI) as adults are those at greatest risk of developing Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. No such studies have been carried out in African populations. Therefore we investigated the(More)
Abnormalities observed in intermediary metabolism may be related to the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Glycerol and lactate production was estimated in the sc adipose tissue of two anatomical regions of 10 lean (LW), 10 obese (OW), and 10 matched diabetic (DW) black urban women. This was done with the sc microdialysis(More)
We examined the concentration dependence of currents through Ca(V)3.1 T-type calcium channels, varying Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) over a wide concentration range (100 nM to 110 mM) while recording whole-cell currents over a wide voltage range from channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. To isolate effects on permeation, instantaneous current-voltage(More)
Interstitial glycerol and lactate production was measured in the s.c. adipose tissue of two anatomical regions in 10 obese urban black women (BW) and 10 obese urban white women (WW) matched for age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, diet, and physical activity. This was done with the s.c. microdialysis technique and combined with adipose tissue blood flow(More)
Many ions block channels by binding within the pore, preventing fl ux of permeant ions. In particular, several di-and trivalent cations bind with high affi nity to the ion selectivity fi lter of voltage-dependent cation channels. Indeed, that is how calcium itself blocks permeation of monovalent cations, introducing calcium selectivity into a channel that(More)
Monoclonal antibody-based two-site immunoradiometric assays are described for human insulin, proinsulin, 65-66 split and 32-33 split proinsulin. The detection limits of the assays lie in the range 0.8-2.5 pM. The assays for 65-66 and 32-33 split proinsulins do not distinguish between these substances and their respective C-terminal di-desamino derivatives.(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of birth weight and gestational age to glucose tolerance in premature neonates. The study group consisted of 100 premature and/or small-for-gestational age infants. Anthropometric measurements were performed both at birth and at the time of a standardized milk feed carried out at 19.6 +/- 12.1 d(More)