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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) have potent anti-inflammatory properties. We have shown previously that they exert this effect in part by inhibiting activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a central regulator of the immune response. We have proposed a molecular mechanism for this inhibition based on computer molecular modeling data. In this model,(More)
The sesquiterpene lactone helenalin is a potent anti-inflammatory drug whose molecular mechanism of action remains unclear despite numerous investigations. We have previously shown that helenalin and other sesquiterpene lactones selectively inhibit activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a central mediator of the human immune response. These drugs(More)
Luteolin is a flavonoid which is part of our daily nutrition in relatively low amounts (less than 1 mg/day). Nevertheless, some epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between luteolin intake and the risk of some cancer types. Luteolin displays specific anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects, which can only partly be explained by its(More)
The antipsoriatic dimethylfumarate (DMF) has been anecdotically reported to reduce asthma symptoms and to improve quality of life of asthma patients. DMF decreases the expression of proinflammatory mediators by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-kappaB and might therefore be of interest for the therapy of inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, we(More)
UNLABELLED Fas/CD95-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes in vivo proceeds through the so-called type II pathway, requiring the proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid for mitochondrial death signaling. Consequently, Bid-deficient mice are protected from anti-Fas antibody injection induced fatal hepatitis. We report the unexpected finding that freshly(More)
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active compounds of a variety of traditionally used medicinal plants from the Asteraceae family. They are known to possess a considerable antiinflammatory activity in different inflammation models. They inhibit the transcription factor NF-kappaB probably by alkylating cysteine38 in the DNA binding domain of the p65(More)
Twenty-four structurally different SLs were studied for their inhibition on IL-8 production in HeLa229 cells and different IC50-values were obtained. QSAR analyses revealed that the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone and the presence and reactivity of a second reaction center, expressed by LUMO2, are the most important descriptors for IL-8. Using two SLs as(More)
We investigated the skin tolerance and anti-inflammatory potential of a nanoparticular solubilisate of a luteolin-rich Reseda extract (s-RE) in two independent studies in vivo. Reseda luteola extract containing 40% flavonoids was solubilized with polysorbate, resulting in product micelles with a diameter of 10 (+/-1.5)nm. Standardized inflammation was(More)
We assessed in vivo the anti-inflammatory activity of two Cat's claw bark extracts, by comparing a spray-dried hydroalcoholic extract against an aqueous freeze-dried extract, to determine which extract was more effective. We used the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in mice. In addition, to assess the molecular mechanism of action, we determined the(More)