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Among a panel of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors investigated, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) evolved as a potent and non-toxic candidate drug for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an alpha-motoneurone disorder caused by insufficient survival motor neuron (SMN) protein levels. SAHA increased SMN levels at low micromolar(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders caused by degeneration of lower motor neurons. Although functional loss of SMN1 is associated with autosomal-recessive childhood SMA, the genetic cause for most families affected by dominantly inherited SMA is unknown. Here, we identified pathogenic variants in bicaudal D(More)
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are potential candidates for therapeutic approaches in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)--a common autosomal recessive disorder and frequent cause of early childhood death. SMA is caused by homozygous absence of SMN1. Importantly, all SMA patients carry a nearly identical copy(More)
Applying the recently developed DNA array technique to a murine stroke model, we found that the gene coding for RhoB, a member of the family of GTPases that regulate a variety of signal transduction pathways, is upregulated in ischemia-damaged neurons. RhoB immunoreactivity precedes DNA single-strand breaks and heralds the evolving infarct, making it an(More)
Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the DNA of the iridovirus frog virus 3 (FV3) is methylated in all 5'-CG-3' sequences both in virion DNA and in the intracellular viral DNA at late times after infection. The 5-methyldeoxycytidine residues in this viral DNA occur exclusively in 5'-CG-3' dinucleotide positions. We have cloned and determined the(More)
Excessive circulating levels of glucocorticoids are thought to be associated with cognitive impairment. We provide evidence that chronic activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in clonal neurons inhibits the transcriptional activity of the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which is believed to be involved in memory processes. To(More)
Functional loss of SMN1 causes proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common genetic condition accounting for infant lethality. Hence, the hypomorphic copy gene SMN2 is the only resource of functional SMN protein in SMA patients and influences SMA severity in a dose-dependent manner. Consequently, current therapeutic approaches focus on SMN2.(More)
The iridovirus frog virus 3 (FV3) can replicate in culture in fat head minnow (FHM) fish cells or in BHK-21 hamster cells. Viral DNA replication commences about 3 h after infection of FHM cells with FV3. Between 3 and 6 h postinfection (p.i.), a portion of the intranuclear FV3 DNA is partly unmethylated. At later times, p.i., all of the viral DNA in the(More)
Patterns of DNA methylation at 5'-CCGG-3' and 5'-GCGC-3' sequences were determined in about 570 kb, equivalent to about 0.02% of the human genome, by using HpaII and HhaI restriction endonucleases, respectively, and randomly selected cosmid clones of human DNA as hybridization probes. Many of these human DNA sequences were of the repetitive type. The DNAs(More)
We report ten individuals of four independent consanguineous families from Turkey, India, Libya, and Pakistan with a variable clinical phenotype that comprises arthrogryposis, spontaneously resolving respiratory insufficiency at birth, muscular atrophy predominantly of the distal lower limbs, scoliosis, and mild distal sensory involvement. Using whole-exome(More)