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We examined the activation of memory-related processes in the hippocampus and the amygdala following spatial learning under stress, in the rat. Animals were trained in a water maze in a massed spatial task under two stress conditions (cold and warm water). In the dorsal CA1, training was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of ERK2 only in animals that(More)
Explicit memory may depend on the hippocampus, whereas the amygdala may be part of an emotional memory system. Priming stimulation of the basolateral group of the amygdala (BLA) resulted in an enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) to perforant path (PP) stimulation 30, 90, 150, and 180 min after high-frequency stimulation (HFS).(More)
In a previous work we found that a 30-s underwater trauma, following 8 days of training for a spatial memory task in the water maze, resulted in poor performance in the spatial memory task at both 1 h and 3 weeks after the trauma. Here we found that compared with naive animals and animals that were trained for the spatial learning task but were not(More)
Memory-related areas, such as the hippocampus, should be able to sort out the more significant from the less relevant aspects of an experience in order to transform only the earlier into long-term memory. We have recently suggested the Emotional Tagging concept, according to which the activation of the amygdala in emotionally arousing events mark the(More)
Cannabinoid agonists generally have a disruptive effect on memory, learning, and operant behavior that is considered to be hippocampus-dependent. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, cannabinoid receptor activation may facilitate neuronal learning processes. For example, CB(1) receptors are essential for the extinction of conditioned fear associations,(More)
We investigated the effects of basolateral amygdala (BLA) priming on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the control animals, the induction of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to the perforant path (PP) resulted in hippocampal LTP at all the time intervals tested. A priming stimulation to the BLA prior to the application of HFS to the(More)
Once consolidated, a long-term memory item could regain susceptibility to consolidation blockers, that is, reconsolidate, upon its reactivation. Both consolidation and reconsolidation require protein synthesis, but it is not yet known how similar these processes are in terms of molecular, cellular, and neural circuit mechanisms. Whereas most previous(More)
In auditory fear conditioning, repeated presentation of the tone in the absence of the shock leads to extinction of the acquired fear response. Both the infra limbic prefrontal cortex (IL) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are involved in extinction. In this study, we examine the involvement of these two regions in extinction by manipulating the(More)
Despite the efficacy of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, extinction-like treatments require repeated cue exposures and are vulnerable to reversal by a number of environmental factors, particularly stress. The endocannabinoid system has recently emerged as important in the regulation of extinction learning and in the regulation of the(More)
Stress exposure, depending on its intensity and duration, affects cognition and learning in an adaptive or maladaptive manner. Studies addressing the effects of stress on cognitive processes have mainly focused on conditioned fear, since it is suggested that fear-motivated learning lies at the root of affective and anxiety disorders. Inhibition of(More)