Iris E. Andernach

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Bacillus subtilis can utilize maltose and maltodextrins that are derived from polysaccharides, like starch or glycogen. In this work, we show that maltose is taken up by a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and maltodextrins are taken up by a maltodextrin-specific ABC transporter. Uptake of maltose by the(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. One of the two genotypes A and E dominates in most countries. With several subgenotypes and variants, genotype A is more diverse in Africa (4.00%) than in the rest of the world (2.96%), suggesting an African origin and a long history on the continent. Despite the African slave trade,(More)
In Haiti, >90% of the population descended from African slaves. Of 7,147 Haitian pregnant women sampled, 44% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections were caused by genotype A1, which today is found mainly in eastern Africa. Twenty percent belong to a rare subgenotype, A5, which has been found only in the former Bight of Benin, a former primary slave trading(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES In Lao People's Democratic Republic, hepatitis B virus is highly endemic. However, blood donations are only screened for HBsAg, leaving a risk of transmission by HBsAg-negative occult infected donors. Here, we characterized first-time blood donors to assess prevalence of hepatitis B virus infections and occult infected donors. (More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, genotype E is the predominant genotype throughout a vast region spanning from Senegal to Namibia and extending to the Central African Republic in the East. Despite its wide geographic distribution and the high prevalence throughout this genotype E crescent, this genotype has a very low genetic diversity. OBJECTIVES Here(More)
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and infection with this virus aggravates acute and chronic liver disease. While HBV seroprevalence is very high across sub-Saharan Africa, much less is known about HDV in the region. In this study, almost 2,300 blood serum samples from Burkina Faso (n=1,131), Nigeria (n=974), Chad (n=50),(More)
In Lao PDR, where more than 8% of the population are chronic carriers of HBsAg, multiple genotypes and subgenotypes co-circulate and are prone to generate recombinant viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple clones per donor revealed mixed infections of subgenotypes B1, B2, B4, C1, C5, I1 and I2 in almost 6% of HBsAg positive rejected blood donors.(More)
Despite its wide spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, hepatitis B virus genotype E (HBV/E) has a surprisingly low genetic diversity, indicating an only recent emergence of this genotype in the general African population. Here, we performed extensive phylogeographic analyses, including Bayesian MCMC modeling. Our results indicate a mutation rate(More)
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