Iris E. Andernach

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Bacillus subtilis can utilize maltose and maltodextrins that are derived from polysaccharides, like starch or glycogen. In this work, we show that maltose is taken up by a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and maltodextrins are taken up by a maltodextrin-specific ABC transporter. Uptake of maltose by the(More)
In Haiti, >90% of the population descended from African slaves. Of 7,147 Haitian pregnant women sampled, 44% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections were caused by genotype A1, which today is found mainly in eastern Africa. Twenty percent belong to a rare subgenotype, A5, which has been found only in the former Bight of Benin, a former primary slave trading(More)
In Lao PDR, where more than 8% of the population are chronic carriers of HBsAg, multiple genotypes and subgenotypes co-circulate and are prone to generate recombinant viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple clones per donor revealed mixed infections of subgenotypes B1, B2, B4, C1, C5, I1 and I2 in almost 6% of HBsAg positive rejected blood donors.(More)
Despite its wide spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, hepatitis B virus genotype E (HBV/E) has a surprisingly low genetic diversity, indicating an only recent emergence of this genotype in the general African population. Here, we performed extensive phylogeographic analyses, including Bayesian MCMC modeling. Our results indicate a mutation rate(More)
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