Irina Stepanov

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Declining cigarette use and spreading bans on smoking in public places in the United States are encouraging the U.S. cigarette industry to turn to another tobacco category, smokeless tobacco products. Currently, a number of new brands are being test marketed, including Taboka, Marlboro Snus, Camel Snus, and Skoal Dry. We report here levels of(More)
AIMS To examine the effects of reduced nicotine cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, dependence and abstinence. DESIGN Randomized, parallel arm, semi-blinded study. Setting University of Minnesota Tobacco Use Research Center. INTERVENTIONS Six weeks of: (i) 0.05 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; (ii) 0.3 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; or (iii)(More)
New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but(More)
Smokeless tobacco contains 28 known carcinogens and causes precancerous oral lesions and oral and pancreatic cancer. A recent study conducted by our research team identified eight different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S. moist snuff, encouraging further investigations of this group of toxicants and carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.(More)
Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content(More)
Smokeless tobacco products are a known cause of oral cancer in India. Carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in these products are believed to be at least partially responsible for cancer induction, but there have been no recent analyses of their amounts. We quantified levels of 4 tobacco-specific nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN),(More)
Numerous studies have quantified total cotinine (the sum of cotinine and cotinine-N-glucuronide) and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL; the sum of NNAL and its O- and N-glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs)] in the urine and blood of smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Analysis of hair and(More)
N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are tobacco-specific nitrosamines. NNN and NNK can induce cancers of the esophagus and lung, respectively, in laboratory animals, but data on human esophageal cancer are lacking. The association between levels of NNN and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL),(More)
INTRODUCTION Information on chemical composition of the new oral "spitless" smokeless tobacco products is scarce, and it is not clear whether there is some variability as a function of purchase place or time due to either unintended or intended manufacturing variations or other conditions. METHODS We analyzed tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) and(More)
BACKGROUND Smokeless, spitless tobacco products are being introduced and marketed as cigarette substitutes. Data are needed regarding how smokers interested in cessation would use these products, the levels of resultant toxicant exposure, and the feasibility of using these products as aids for tobacco cessation. METHODS Smokers were randomized to receive(More)