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The content of these European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines has been published for personal and educational use only. No commercial use is authorized. No part of the ESC Guidelines may be translated or reproduced in any form without written permission from the ESC. Permission can be obtained upon submission of a written request to Oxford University(More)
The disclosure forms of the authors and reviewers are available on the ESC website www.escardio.org/guidelines † Representing the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Other ESC entities having participated in the development of this document:. The content of these European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines has been published for(More)
Although first described about 100yr ago, atrial fibrillation (AF) is now recognized as the most common of all arrhythmias. It has a substantial morbidity and presents a considerable health care burden. Improved diagnosis and an ageing population with an increased likelihood of underlying cardiac disease results in AF in more than 1% of population. AF is(More)
Novel oral anticoagulants, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, represent new options for preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, as shown by the results from large, randomized phase III trials. Because of their greater specificity, rapid onset of action, and predictable pharmacokinetics, the novel oral anticoagulants(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an epidemic, affecting 1% to 1.5% of the population in the developed world. Projected data from the population-based studies suggest that the prevalence of AF will grow at least 3-fold by 2050. The health and economic burden imposed by AF and AF-related morbidity is enormous. Atrial fibrillation has a multiplicity of causes(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Congestive heart failure (CHF), an increasingly frequent cardiovascular disorder affecting millions of people world-wide, has become the most important risk factor of AF in developed countries, as a result of ageing populations. Approximately two thirds of patients with CHF are >65 years of(More)
To identify loci affecting the electrocardiographic QT interval, a measure of cardiac repolarisation associated with risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, we conducted a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) including 3,558 subjects from the TwinsUK and BRIGHT cohorts in the UK and the DCCT/EDIC cohort from North(More)
AIMS First-line medical management of stable angina generally involves a beta-blocker (BB) or calcium channel blocker (CCB), with other classes of medication being added if symptom control is inadequate. Evidence supporting the appropriate choice of a second-line agent is currently unclear. The objective of this systematic review was to quantify the(More)
It has been well documented that abortion is a common means of controlling fertility in Russia. Women undergo repeat abortions throughout their reproductive lives, but recent studies of abortion trends in the Russian Federation suggest that abortion rates are on the decline, use of modern contraceptives is increasing, and women dislike abortion as a method(More)