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Horizontal gene transfer in metazoans has been documented in only a few species and is usually associated with endosymbiosis or parasitism. By contrast, in bdelloid rotifers we found many genes that appear to have originated in bacteria, fungi, and plants, concentrated in telomeric regions along with diverse mobile genetic elements. Bdelloid proximal(More)
Loss of sexual reproduction is considered an evolutionary dead end for metazoans, but bdelloid rotifers challenge this view as they appear to have persisted asexually for millions of years. Neither male sex organs nor meiosis have ever been observed in these microscopic animals: oocytes are formed through mitotic divisions, with no reduction of chromosome(More)
HeT-A elements are non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons found in head-to-tail arrays on Drosophila chromosome ends, where they form telomeres. We report that HeT-A promoter activity is located in the 3' end of the element, unlike the 5' location seen for other non-LTR retrotransposons. In HeT-A arrays the 3' sequence of one element directs(More)
We surveyed the diversity, structural organization, and patterns of evolution of DNA transposons in rotifers of the class Bdelloidea, a group of basal triploblast animals that appears to have evolved for millions of years without sexual reproduction. Representatives of five superfamilies were identified: ITm (IS630/Tc/mariner), hAT, piggyBac, helitron, and(More)
TFIID recognizes multiple sequence elements in the hsp70 promoter of Drosophila. Here, we investigate the function of sequences downstream from the TATA element. A mutation in the initiator was identified that caused an eightfold reduction in binding of TFIID and a fourfold reduction in transcription in vitro. Another mutation in the +24 to +29 region was(More)
Reverse transcription intermediate forms (minus and plus strong-stop DNA) are detected in Drosophila melanogaster cultured cells for mobile dispersed genetic elements mdg1, mdg3, and mdg4 (gypsy). The mdg elements studied possess a common mechanism of reverse transcription, despite their structural differences, and the comparative analysis of intermediate(More)
Ribosomal DNA genes in many eukaryotes contain insertions of non-LTR retrotransposable elements belonging to the R2 clade. These elements persist in the host genomes by inserting site-specifically into multicopy target sites, thereby avoiding random disruption of single-copy host genes. Here we describe R9 retrotransposons from the R2 clade in the 28S RNA(More)
The third international conference on the genomic impact of eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs) was held 24 to 28 February 2012 at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, CA, USA. Sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health grant 5 P41 LM006252, the goal of the conference was to bring together researchers from around the world who study(More)
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a molecular chaperone providing tolerance to heat and other challenges at the cellular and organismal levels. We sequenced a genomic cluster containing three hsp70 family genes linked with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region from an extremely heat tolerant animal, camel (Camelus dromedarius). Two hsp70(More)