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Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial(More)
1 T he biomass of all living organisms consists of around 30 of the 92 naturally occurring elements (Fig. 1a and Supplementary Table S1) 1,2. All organisms must obtain chemical forms of these essential elements, termed nutrients, from their external environment. The key role that nutrients play in controlling upper-ocean productivity has long been(More)
[1] We use both theory and ocean biogeochemistry models to examine the role of the soft-tissue biological pump in controlling atmospheric CO 2. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO 2 can be simply related to the amount of inorganic carbon stored in the ocean by the soft-tissue pump, which we term (OCS soft). OCS soft is linearly related to the inventory of(More)
[1] This paper examines the sensitivity of atmospheric pCO 2 to changes in ocean biology that result in drawdown of nutrients at the ocean surface. We show that the global inventory of preformed nutrients is the key determinant of atmospheric pCO 2 and the oceanic carbon storage due to the soft-tissue pump (OCS soft). We develop a new theory showing that(More)
We use a novel satellite time series of size-partitioned phytoplankton biomass to construct and analyze classical and novel seasonality metrics. Biomass is computed from SeaWiFS ocean color data using retrievals of the particle size distribution with the KSM09 algorithm and existing allometric relationships to convert volume to carbon. The phenological(More)
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