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The sirtuins are members of the histone deacetylase family of proteins that participate in a variety of cellular functions and play a role in aging. We identified a potent inhibitor of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) and found that inhibition of SIRT2 rescued alpha-synuclein toxicity and modified inclusion morphology in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease. Genetic(More)
The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site that is distinct from the proposed major recognition sites for chemokines and the viral glycoprotein gp120, providing(More)
Biological metabolites, substrates, cofactors, chemical probes, and drugs bind to flexible pockets in multiple biological macromolecules to exert their biological effect. The rapid growth of the structural databases and sequence data, including SNPs and disease-related genome modifications, complemented by the new cutting-edge 3D docking, scoring, and(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell surface molecules involved in signal transduction. Surprisingly, open reading frames for multiple GPCRs were hijacked in the process of coevolution between Herpesviridae family viruses and their human and mammalian hosts. Virally encoded GPCRs (vGPCRs) evolved as parts of viral(More)
Elevated intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) may induce apoptosis, and at least some cancer cells seem to escape this effect by increased efflux of cGMP, as clinical studies have shown that extracellular cGMP levels are elevated in various types of cancer. The human ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCC5 transports cGMP out(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand dependent transcriptional factors and play a key role in reproduction, development, and homeostasis of organism. NRs are potential targets for treatment of cancer and other diseases such as inflammatory diseases, and diabetes. In this study, we present a comprehensive library of pocket conformational ensembles of thirteen(More)
Aberrant expression and activity of G proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Deep sequencing studies show that 4.2% of tumours carry activating mutations in GNAS (encoding Gαs), and that oncogenic activating mutations in genes encoding Gαq family members (GNAQ or GNA11) are present in ~66% and ~6% of(More)
Recent advances in structural proteomics call for development of fast and reliable automatic methods for prediction of functional surfaces of proteins with known three-dimensional structure, including binding sites for known and unknown protein partners as well as oligomerization interfaces. Despite significant progress the problem is still far from being(More)
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA), a compound generated during tryptophan metabolism initiated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, is known to induce T cell death, but its molecular target is not known. Here we report that HAA inhibits NF-kappaB activation upon T cell antigen receptor engagement by specifically targeting PDK1. Inhibition of NF-kappaB by HAA leads(More)
The importance of binding site plasticity in protein-ligand interactions is well-recognized, and so are the difficulties in predicting the nature and the degree of this plasticity by computational means. To assist in understanding the flexible protein-ligand interactions, we constructed the Pocketome, an encyclopedia of about one thousand experimentally(More)