Irina Georgia Anna Ruether

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Noroviruses (NoVs) are members of the Caliciviridae family and are recognized as a worldwide cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Based on the genetic analysis of the RdRp and capsid regions, human NoVs are divided into three genogroups (Gs), GI, GII, and GIV, which further segregate into distinct lineages called genotypes. In this study, in an(More)
Human noroviruses (NoVs) of the Caliciviridae family are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. The NoV genus is genetically diverse and recombination of viral RNA is known to depend upon various immunological and intracellular constraints that may allow the emergence of viable recombinants. In the present study, we report the development of a broadly(More)
The HPV16 E1∧E4 protein is thought to contribute to the release of newly formed viral particles from infected epithelia. In order to investigate amino acid mutations in the HPV16 E1∧E4 protein, the complete E4 ORF was amplified by PCR in 27 HPV16-positive cervical samples, and the amplicons were cloned. Fifteen nucleic acid variations were identified in the(More)
The causal association between persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has lead to the development of a variety of molecular assays for HPV detection. The present study focused on the development of a simple, sensitive and cost-effective HPV genotyping method based on multiplex PCR methodology that could be easily performed in(More)
The E1 ORF is one of the most conserved regions in the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome. The complete E1 gene of the HPV16 genome was amplified with four overlapping primer sets in 16 high-grade (CIN II, III) and 13 low-grade cervical (CIN I) intraepithelial neoplasias as well as in one cervical cancer case. Sequence analysis of the E6 and E7 genes was(More)
Enteroviruses, the main cause of aseptic meningitis, consist of 100 serotypes, and many of them have been associated with large outbreaks. In the present study, a comparison of RFLP analysis of the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and sequencing of both the 5′UTR and VP1 regions was conducted for epidemiological linkage of 27 clinical enterovirus strains. The(More)
Long-term infection with high-risk HPV genotypes is the leading cause of cervical cancer. In the present study a Duplex Real-time PCR assay was developed in order to identify HPV types 16, 18, 31, 35, 51 and 66 in three reactions, through SYBR green I melting curve analysis. The method utilizes type-specific primer sets that allowed the amplification of(More)
Poliomyelitis has been effectively controlled by the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or trivalent live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, the use of OPV in mass vaccinations has resulted in drastic reductions of the number of poliomyelitis cases caused by wild-type polioviruses. However, the characterization of OPV derivatives(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 genome integration into the host chromosome is a crucial event during the life cycle of the virus and a major step towards carcinogenesis. The integration of HPV16 DNA promotes a constitutive high expression level of E6 and E7 oncoproteins, resulting in the extensive proliferation of the infected epithelial cells. In the(More)
Integration of HPV16 DNA into the host chromosome usually disrupts the E1 and/or E2 genes. The present study investigated the disruption of E1, E2 genes in a total of eighty four HPV16-positive precancerous and cervical cancer specimens derived from Greek women (seventeen paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies and sixty seven Thin Prep samples). Complete E2(More)