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Using a simplified preparation of the Aplysia siphon-withdrawal reflex, we previously found that associative plasticity at synapses between sensory neurons and motor neurons contributes importantly to classical conditioning of the reflex. We have now tested the roles in that plasticity of two associative cellular mechanisms: activity-dependent enhancement(More)
A change in the efficiency of synaptic communication between neurons is thought to underlie learning. Consistent with recent studies of such changes, we find that long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission between cultured hippocampal neurons is accompanied by an increase in the number of clusters of postsynaptic glutamate receptors containing the(More)
Plasticity at central synapses has long been thought to be the most likely mechanism for learning and memory, but testing that idea experimentally has proven to be difficult. For this reason, we have developed a simplified preparation of the Aplysia siphon withdrawal reflex that allows one to examine behavioral learning and memory while simultaneously(More)
Previous research has suggested that cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) may play a role in long-term potentiation in hippocampus, but their site of action has been unknown. We examined this question at synapses between pairs of hippocampal neurons in dissociated cell culture. Injection of a specific peptide inhibitor of cGK into the presynaptic but not(More)
Wild-type alpha-synuclein, a protein of unknown function, has received much attention because of its involvement in a series of diseases that are known as synucleinopathies. We find that long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission between cultured hippocampal neurons is accompanied by an increase in the number of alpha-synuclein clusters. Conversely,(More)
For the first time, callus and suspension cultures of Linum linearifolium were initiated. Podophyllotoxin (PTOX), a strong antitumor precursor, was isolated from the calli and suspension, as a main lignan besides smaller amount of 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6MPTOX). L. linearifolium is now the third Linum species of section Syllinum, with PTOX as the main(More)
Recent results suggest that long-lasting potentiation at hippocampal synapses involves the rapid formation of clusters or puncta of presynaptic as well as postsynaptic proteins, both of which are blocked by antagonists of NMDA receptors and an inhibitor of actin polymerization. We have investigated whether the increase in puncta involves retrograde(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to be involved in several forms of learning in vivo and synaptic plasticity in vitro, but very little is known about the role of NO during physiological forms of plasticity that occur during learning. We addressed that question in a simplified preparation of the Aplysia siphon-withdrawal reflex. We first used in situ(More)
Long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurons has stages that correspond to the stages of learning and memory. Early-phase (10-30 min) potentiation is accompanied by rapid increases in clusters or puncta of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, which depend on actin polymerization but not on protein synthesis. We have now examined changes in pre- and(More)
The object-oriented methodology is insufficient for developing agent-based control systems because it can not naturally represent the essential characteristics of agents, such as autonomous behavior, temporal continuity and cooperativety. The approach presented in this paper aims to extends UML for development agent-based control systems based on its(More)