Irina A Udalova

Learn More
Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments in vitro and in vivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that many(More)
Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the transcription factor IRF5 that lead to higher mRNA expression are associated with many autoimmune diseases. Here we show that IRF5 expression in macrophages was reversibly induced by inflammatory stimuli and contributed to the plasticity of macrophage polarization. High expression of IRF5 was characteristic of M1(More)
Genetic variation in cytokine promoter regions is postulated to influence susceptibility to infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which such polymorphisms might affect gene regulation are unknown. Through systematic DNA footprinting of the TNF (encoding tumour necrosis factor, TNF) promoter region, we have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism(More)
Transcriptional activation of various genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to be mediated, at least in part, by the NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors. We have identified a novel kappa B element located immediately downstream of the TNF-alpha gene that is conserved together with its flanking sequences across species lines and can act as an(More)
Inappropriate expression of proinflammatory mediators underpins the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease and tumor metastasis. The extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C is an endogenous activator of innate immunity that promotes the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines via activation of TLR4. Little tenascin-C is observed in most healthy adult tissues,(More)
Transcription of the TNF gene is rapidly and transiently induced by LPS in cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Previous data suggested that multiple NF-kappaB/Rel binding sites play a role in the transcriptional response to LPS of the murine gene. However, the relevance of homologous sites in the human TNF gene remained a matter of controversy, partly(More)
The unique DNA-binding properties of distinct NF-κB dimers influence the selective regulation of NF-κB target genes. To more thoroughly investigate these dimer-specific differences, we combined protein-binding microarrays and surface plasmon resonance to evaluate DNA sites recognized by eight different NF-κB dimers. We observed three distinct(More)
We have identified three polymorphic microsatellites (which we call TNFa, TNFb, and TNFc) within a 12-kilobase region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that includes the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus. TNFc is located within the first intron of the TNF-beta gene and has only 2 alleles. TNFa and TNFb are 3.5 kilobases upstream(More)
TNF-alpha and lymphotoxin (LT, TNF-beta) genes are tandemly arranged and map within the MHC centromeric to HLA-B and telomeric to the class III genes. Both cytokines encoded by these genes are potent immunomodulators. On the other hand, some MHC-linked autoimmune diseases are characterized by abnormal levels of their expression or inducibility. A search for(More)
The human tumor necrosis factor locus (TNF locus) is located within the major histocompatibility complex between the class III genes and HLA-B. We recently characterized and studied two closely linked highly informative dinucleotide repeats (AC/GT)n (designated TNFa) and (TC/GA)k (designated TNFb) in the upstream region of the human TNF-beta (lymphotoxin)(More)