Irina A Pikuleva

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Historically understudied, cholesterol in the retina is receiving more attention now because of genetic studies showing that several cholesterol-related genes are risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and because of eye pathology studies showing high cholesterol content of drusen, aging Bruch's membrane, and newly found subretinal lesions.(More)
24S-hydroxycholesterol is a side-chain oxidized oxysterol formed in the brain that is continuously crossing the blood-brain barrier to reach the circulation. There may be an opposite flux of 27-hydroxycholesterol, which is formed to a lower extent in the brain than in most other organs. Here we measured cholesterol, lathosterol, 24S- and(More)
The known activity of cytochrome P450 46A1 (P450 46A1) is 24(S)-hydroxylation of cholesterol. This reaction produces biologically active oxysterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and is also the first step in enzymatic degradation of cholesterol in the brain. We report here that P450 46A1 can further metabolize 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, giving 24,25- and(More)
Mitochondrial cytochrome P450 27A1 (P450 27A1) catalyzes 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol, the first step in the alternative bile acid biosynthetic pathway. Although several crystal structures of P450s are known, no structural information is available for the mammalian, membrane-bound enzymes involved in the removal of cholesterol from the body. We prepared(More)
One of the major oxysterols in the human circulation is 4 beta-hydroxycholesterol formed from cholesterol by the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4. Deuterium-labeled 4 beta-hydroxycholesterol was injected into two healthy volunteers, and the apparent half-life was found to be 64 and 60 h, respectively. We have determined earlier the half-lives(More)
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has promise as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, therapeutic HDAC inhibitors target many HDAC isoforms, a particularly detrimental approach when HDAC isoforms are known to have different and specialized functions. We have developed a multiple reaction monitoring(More)
There is a continuous flux of the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) from the circulation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain. The major metabolite of 27-OHC in the brain is 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid (7-HOCA). We confirm a recent report describing the presence of this metabolite in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at a relatively(More)
To study membrane topology and mechanism for substrate specificity, we truncated residues 2-24 in microsomal cytochrome P450 7A1 (P450 7A1) and introduced conservative and nonconservative substitutions at positions 214-227. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli was followed by investigation of the subcellular distribution of the mutant P450s and(More)
There is a significant flux of the neurotoxic oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) from the circulation across the blood-brain barrier. Because there is a correlation between 27OHC and cholesterol in the circulation and lipoprotein-bound cholesterol does not pass the blood-brain barrier, we have suggested that 27OHC may mediate the effects of(More)
The conversion of cholesterol to 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol catalyzed by cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) initiates the major pathway for cholesterol elimination in mammals. In the present work we focused on identification of determinants of the CYP7A1 substrate specificity inside the active site using a homology model with a novel P450-fold, site-directed(More)