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While a significant proportion of HIV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic and maintain undetectable viral loads (controllers), 15% to 20% progress to AIDS and are predicted by detectable viremia. Identifying immune correlates that distinguish these 2 groups should provide insights into how a potentially pathogenic retrovirus can be naturally controlled.(More)
Tuberculosis causes 3 million deaths annually. The most common site of tuberculosis is pulmonary however; extra-pulmonary forms of the disease also remain prevalent. Restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on effective recruitment and subsequent activation of T lymphocytes, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells to the site of infection. Tumor(More)
While well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, neurologic sequelae have not been systematically evaluated in HIV-2. After excluding for confounding comorbidities, 67 individuals from a rural cohort in Guinea-Bissau (22 HIV-2 participants, 45 seronegative controls) were evaluated. HIV + individuals were divided into CD4 < 350 and CD4 ≥ 350(More)
In spite of recent advances in flow cytometry technology, most cytometry data is still analyzed manually which is labor-intensive for large datasets and prone to bias and inconsistency. We designed an automatic processing tool (APT) to rapidly and consistently define and describe cell populations across large datasets. Image processing, smoothing, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The factors associated with the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV patients commencing antiretroviral therapy have not been fully elucidated. Using a longitudinal study design, this study addressed whether alteration in the levels of T regulatory cells contributed to the development of IRIS in a West African cohort(More)
Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are successful intracellular pathogens which down regulate host immune responses. T-cell interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and macrophage tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) activate chemokines such as, C-C chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) and CCL5, which play a role in granuloma formation. Lepromatous leprosy is(More)
The role of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, although not entirely clear, has recently been highlighted. Despite their lack of specificity, fluorochrome-labeled CD4 and CD25 antibodies are common flow cytometric reagents used to identify these cells with immunosuppressive potential. Cryopreservation has(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium falciparum sporozite (PfSPZ) Vaccine is a metabolically active, non-replicating, whole malaria sporozoite vaccine that has been reported to be safe and protective against P falciparum controlled human malaria infection in malaria-naive individuals. We aimed to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine against naturally(More)
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