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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. There is compelling evidence that the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides play critical roles in AD pathogenesis. Due to limited access to human neural tissue, pathogenetic studies have, so far, mostly focused on the(More)
Deposition of amyloid β peptides (Aβs) in extracellular amyloid plaques within the human brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ derives from proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. The initial cleavage by β-secretase results in shedding of the APP ectodomain and generation of APP C-terminal(More)
Recent work from our laboratory demonstrates that the accumulation of sphingolipids (SLs) decreases the capacity of cells to clear potentially amyloidogenic fragments of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) during autophagy. APP is a type I membrane protein and could undergo sequential proteolytic processing by β- and γ-secretase resulting in the generation(More)
Progressive accumulation of the amyloid β protein in extracellular plaques is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease. Amyloid β is generated during sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. In addition to the proteolytic processing by secretases, APP is also metabolized by lysosomal proteases. Here, we(More)
Alzheimer disease is associated with extracellular deposits of amyloid beta-peptides in the brain. Amyloid beta-peptides are generated by proteolytic processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein by beta- and gamma-secretases. The cleavage by secretases occurs predominantly in post-Golgi secretory and endocytic compartments and is influenced by(More)
Epidemiological studies indicate that intake of statins decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Cellular and in vivo studies suggested that statins might decrease the generation of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) from the β-amyloid precursor protein. Here, we show that statins potently stimulate the degradation of extracellular Aβ by microglia. The(More)
The beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) represents a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is ubiquitously expressed. In the brain, it is a key player in the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Its physiological function is however less well understood. Previous studies showed that APP is up-regulated in prostate, colon, pancreatic tumor, and(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). It is involved in the receptor-mediated cellular clearance of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) and in the perivascular drainage of the extracellular fluid. Microvascular changes are also associated with AD and have been discussed as a possible reason for altered perivascular(More)
Presenilins (PSs) are components of the gamma-secretase complex that mediates intramembranous cleavage of type I membrane proteins. We show that gamma-secretase is involved in the regulation of cellular lipoprotein uptake. Loss of gamma-secretase function decreased endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. The decreased uptake of lipoproteins(More)
Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal(More)