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Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism. It is known that hyperuricemia, defined as high levels of blood uric acid, is the major etiological factor of gout. A number of epidemiological reports have increasingly linked hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Studies highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of uric acid point to an(More)
Gout is a common and very painful inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricaemia. This review provides an update on the genetics of hyperuricaemia and gout, including findings from genome-wide association studies. Most of the genes that associated with serum uric acid levels or gout are involved in the renal urate-transport system. For example, the urate(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether phonophobia and dynamic mechanical (brush) allodynia are associated in episodic migraine (EM). METHODS Adult patients with EM were prospectively recruited. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and migraine related data. Phonophobia was tested quantitatively using a real time sound processor and(More)
During the late stages of lambda bacteriophage assembly, the protein gpU terminates tail polymerization and participates at the interface between the mature capsid and tail components. When it engages the lambda tail, gpU undergoes a monomer-hexamer transition to achieve its biologically active form. Towards understanding how gpU participates in multiple(More)
PURPOSE To compare inpatient postpartum current and former smokers on: need for smoking cessation assistance; cessation interventions received from healthcare providers; cessation methods used; perceived barriers of cessation; exposure to second hand smoke (SHS); interest in postdischarge interventions; and smoking abstinence self-efficacy (SASE). STUDY(More)
This study investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) on angiogenesis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and zebrafish embryos. We found that Hcy (50 micromol/L) significantly decreased cell numbers, viability, and induced a G1/S arrest in HUVEC in the presence of adenosine (Ade, 50 micromol/L). Hcy, in combination with Ade,(More)
INTRODUCTION While anticancer immunotherapies have traditionally focused on activation of the immune system, there is recent interest in disinhibition of the natural antitumor immune response by targeting immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). One humanized monoclonal antibody against(More)
BACKGROUND The maternal microbiome is a key contributor to the development and outcomes of pregnancy and the health status of both mother and infant. Significant advances are occurring in the science of the maternal and child microbiome and hold promise in improving outcomes related to pregnancy complications, child development, and chronic health(More)
BACKGROUND Beginning at birth, the microbes in the gut perform essential duties related to the digestion and metabolism of food, the development and activation of the immune system, and the production of neurotransmitters that affect behavior and cognitive function. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this review are to (a) provide a brief overview of the(More)
NF-κB-controlled transcriptional regulation plays a central role in inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, understanding about NF-κB activation mechanism emphasizes IκB-tethered complex inactivation in the cytoplasm. In the case of NF-κB activation, IκB phosphorylation leads to its degradation, followed by NF-κB relocation to the nucleus and(More)