Learn More
OBJECTIVE To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. DESIGN Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. STUDIES REVIEWED 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants INTERVENTION REVIEWED: 75 strategies for influencing response to postal(More)
BACKGROUND Postal and electronic questionnaires are widely used for data collection in epidemiological studies but non-response reduces the effective sample size and can introduce bias. Finding ways to increase response to postal and electronic questionnaires would improve the quality of health research. OBJECTIVES To identify effective strategies to(More)
BACKGROUND Postal questionnaires are widely used for data collection in epidemiological studies but non-response reduces the effective sample size and can introduce bias. Finding ways to increase response rates to postal questionnaires would improve the quality of health research. OBJECTIVES To identify effective strategies to increase response rates to(More)
The -300 region of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) promoter contains a functional NF-kappa B binding site composed of the decamer sequence 5'-GGGAAAATCC-3'. Probes representing the -300 region or the NF-kappa B site alone interacted with NF-kappa B proteins present in phorbol myristate acetate-, lipopolysaccharide-, or Sendai virus-induced myeloid cell(More)
BACKGROUND Several systematic reviews compared recombinant gonadotrophin with urinary gonadotrophins (HMG, purified FSH, highly purified FSH) for ovarian hyperstimulation in IVF and ICSI cycles and these reported conflicting results. Each of these reviews used different inclusion and exclusion criteria for trials. Our aim in producing this review is to(More)
Multiple regulatory domains within the -100 region of the beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter control the inducible response of the IFN gene to virus infection. In this study, we demonstrate that the formation of NF-kappa B-specific complexes on the positive regulatory domain II (PRDII) precedes the onset of detectable IFN-beta transcription in Sendai(More)
Hypoxia is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor progression in numerous carcinomas. Responses to hypoxia are thought to operate via hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), but the importance of co-factors that regulate HIF signaling within tumors is not well understood. Here, we elucidate a signaling pathway that physically and functionally(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of spinal immobilization on healthy participants. METHODS A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of spinal immobilization on healthy participants. RESULTS Seventeen randomized, controlled trials compared different types of immobilization devices, including collars, backboards, splints, and body strapping.(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal immobilisation involves the use of a number of devices and strategies to stabilise the spinal column after injury and thus prevent spinal cord damage. The practice is widely recommended and widely used in trauma patients with suspected spinal cord injury in the pre-hospital setting. OBJECTIVES To quantify the effect of different methods(More)