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BACKGROUND Fifty percent of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MI-BC) die from their disease and current chemotherapy treatment only marginally increases survival. Novel therapies targeting receptor tyrosine kinases or activated oncogenes may improve outcome. Hence, it is necessary to stratify patients based on mutations in relevant oncogenes.(More)
Recently a number of randomized trials have shown that patients with advanced colorectal cancer do not benefit from therapies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor when their tumors harbor mutations in the KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes. We developed two multiplex assays that simultaneously screen 22 nucleotides in the KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA(More)
Microsatellite markers are used for loss-of-heterozygosity, allelic imbalance and clonality analyses in cancers. Usually, tumor DNA is compared to corresponding normal DNA. However, normal DNA is not always available and can display aberrant allele ratios due to copy number variations in the genome. Moreover, stutter peaks may complicate the analysis. To(More)
Epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS) is a rare condition characterized by congenital epidermal nevi (EN) associated abnormalities of other organs including central nervous system (CNS), skeletal system, eyes, and oral cavity (1). ENS is divided into a group of distinct disorders, based on the associated epidermal nevus and genetic inheritance pattern. Organoid(More)
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