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OBJECTIVE To devise a short bedside cognitive and behavioral battery to assess frontal lobe functions. METHODS The designed battery consists of six subtests exploring the following: conceptualization, mental flexibility, motor programming, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. It takes approximately 10 minutes to(More)
To improve the specificity and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Society for PSP, Inc. (SPSP) sponsored an international workshop to develop an accurate and universally accepted set of criteria for(More)
Dementia has been increasingly more recognized to be a common feature in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in old age. Specific criteria for the clinical diagnosis of dementia associated with PD (PD-D), however, have been lacking. A Task Force, organized by the Movement Disorder Study, was charged with the development of clinical diagnostic(More)
We report the results of a consensus conference on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). We describe the clinical features of the disease, which include four domains: autonomic failure/urinary dysfunction, parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and corticospinal dysfunction. We set criteria to define the relative importance of these features. The(More)
Mild cognitive impairment is common in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may be a harbinger of dementia. In view of its importance, the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to delineate diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD. The proposed diagnostic criteria are based on a literature review and expert(More)
We describe two extended haplotypes that cover the human tau gene. In a total of approximately 200 unrelated caucasian individuals there is complete disequilibrium between polymorphisms which span the gene (which covers approximately 100 kb of DNA). This suggests that the establishment of the two haplotypes was an ancient event and either that recombination(More)
As there are no biological markers for the antemortem diagnosis of degenerative parkinsonian disorders, diagnosis currently relies upon the presence and progression of clinical features and confirmation depends on neuropathology. Clinicopathologic studies have shown significant false-positive and false-negative rates for diagnosing these disorders, and(More)
A working group supported by the Office of Rare Diseases of the National Institutes of Health formulated neuropathologic criteria for corticobasal degeneration (CBD) that were subsequently validated by an independent group of neuropathologists. The criteria do not require a specific clinical phenotype, since CBD can have diverse clinical presentations, such(More)
A preceding article described the clinical features of Parkinson's disease dementia (PD-D) and proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for "probable" and "possible" PD-D. The main focus of this article is to operationalize the diagnosis of PD-D and to propose practical guidelines based on a two level process depending upon the clinical scenario and the(More)