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We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare functional outcomes, complications, and reoperation rates in elderly patients with displaced intra-articular, distal humeral fractures treated with open reduction-internal fixation (ORIF) or primary semiconstrained total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Forty-two patients were randomized by sealed(More)
PURPOSE To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among people aged ≥ 50 years in Nakuru, Kenya. METHODS Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was used to select 100 clusters of 50 people aged ≥ 50 years during 2007-2008. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Participants(More)
RNA interference occurs when cytoplasmic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) enter the RNA-induced silencing complex and one strand guides cleavage of the target RNA by the Argonaute 2 protein. A significant concern when applying siRNAs or expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in human cells is activation of the interferon (IFN) response. Synthetic siRNAs(More)
INTRODUCTION Hip fractures are a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide, and the number of hip fractures is expected to rise to over 6 million per year by 2050. The optimal approach for the surgical management of displaced femoral neck fractures remains unknown. Current evidence suggests the use of arthroplasty; however, there is lack of(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the phenotype and investigate the associations of intraretinal crystalline deposits in a large cohort with type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel). DESIGN Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS Patients with and without retinal crystals from the Macular Telangiectasia Project, an international multicenter prospective study of(More)
PURPOSE We compared macular pigment (MP) measurements using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (Macular Metrics Densitometer) and dual-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT MultiColor) in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS Macular pigment was measured in 117 subjects with early AMD(More)
Macular degeneration is known to be a bilateral disease. This study set out to determine the symmetry of phenotype between eyes of patients with bilateral early AMD (or drusen) or late-stage AMD. This may be important information when considering the likelihood of anti-VEGF treatment. This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study graded the color(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether typical abnormalities seen on autofluorescence (AF) imaging in patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 are correlated with visual acuity at presentation and with progression of visual loss over a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS A subgroup of 218 patients (413 eyes) enrolled in the MacTel(More)
BACKGROUND Macular telangiectasia Type 2 is a bilateral, progressive potentially blinding retinal disease characterized by both vascular and neurodegenerative signs that have been documented using different imaging techniques. The correlation between macular telangiectasia Type 2 signs from various imaging modalities is unknown. Our aim was to investigate(More)
PURPOSE Type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) is a progressive retinal disease associated with a slow deterioration of visual acuity, starting in the fifth to seventh decades of life. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are little known, and no effective therapy is available. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and describe the(More)