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Computational thinking (CT) has been described as the use of abstraction, automation, and analysis in problem-solving [3]. We examine how these ways of thinking take shape for middle and high school youth in a set of NSF-supported programs. We discuss opportunities and challenges in both in-school and after-school contexts. Based on these observations, we(More)
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Progestin resistance is a major obstacle to treating early stage, well-differentiated endometrial cancer as well as recurrent endometrial cancer. The mechanism behind the suboptimal response to progestin is not well understood. The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated in type I endometrial cancers and this mutation results in hyperactivation of(More)
The excitement around K-12 Computing Education in the United States is rapidly increasing and K-8 holds great potential as the entry point for the integration of computing. We examine how young learners can gain early exposure and engage in rich computational experiences in K-8. These experiences can build students' computational thinking, understanding of(More)
1. SUMMARY Several changes and reforms in teaching computer science have been proposed and championed as part of the CS10K initiative [1-4]. The CS Principles (CSP) project and the overarching CS10K initiative include a public/private partnership offering curricula, curricular frameworks, professional development, online support, and a community of practice(More)
This report examines the molecular mechanism by which high-fidelity DNA polymerases select nucleotides during the replication of an abasic site, a non-instructional DNA lesion. This was accomplished by synthesizing several unique 5-substituted indolyl 2'-deoxyribose triphosphates and defining their kinetic parameters for incorporation opposite an abasic(More)
The misreplication of damaged DNA is an important biological process that produces numerous adverse effects on human health. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a non-natural nucleotide, designated 3-ethynyl-5-nitroindolyl-2'-deoxyriboside triphosphate (3-Eth-5-NITP), as a novel chemical reagent that can probe and quantify the(More)
Progestins have long been used clinically for the treatment of endometrial cancers; however, the response rates to progestin therapy vary and the molecular mechanisms behind progestin insensitivity are poorly understood. We hypothesized that in PTEN-mutated endometrial cancers, hyperactive Akt signaling downregulates progesterone receptor B (PRB)(More)
BACKGROUND Older people are increasingly "in harm's way" following human-induced disasters (HIDs). There is debate in the literature as to the relative impact of disasters on their psychological health compared with other age groups. Natural disasters and HIDs are thought to affect survivors differentially, and this may extend to older adults as a group. In(More)