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In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803, early steps in thylakoid membrane (TM) biogenesis are considered to take place in specialized membrane fractions resembling an interface between the plasma membrane (PM) and TM. This region (the PratA-defined membrane) is defined by the presence of the photosystem II (PSII) assembly factor PratA (for(More)
Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the inner envelope of chloroplasts is catalyzed by the Tic translocon, consisting of Tic110, Tic40, Tic62, Tic55, Tic32, Tic20, and Tic22. Tic62 was proposed to act as a redox sensor of the complex because of its redox-dependent shuttling between envelope and stroma and its specific interaction with the(More)
Fatty acid synthesis in plants occurs in plastids, and thus, export for subsequent acyl editing and lipid assembly in the cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum is required. Yet, the transport mechanism for plastid fatty acids still remains enigmatic. We isolated FAX1 (fatty acid export 1), a novel protein, which inserts into the chloroplast inner envelope by(More)
All members of the YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 protein family are evolutionarily conserved and appear to function in membrane protein integration and protein complex stabilization. Here, we report on a second thylakoidal isoform of Alb3, named Alb4. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout mutant lines shows that Alb4 is required in assembly and/or stability of the CF1CF0-ATP(More)
In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), transit peptides for chloroplast-destined preproteins can be phosphorylated by the protein kinases STY8, STY17, and STY46. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro properties of these plant-specific kinases. Characterization of the mechanistic functioning of STY8 led to the identification of an essential(More)
In order to further evaluate the process of microwear formation on human dental enamel, microwear was experimentally produced by a chewing simulation with an Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA) device. For this simulation, several cereal species were processed according to historical milling techniques, the experimental results of which were(More)
The extreme Alb3 C terminus is important for Alb3 stability in a light dependent manner, but is dispensable for LHCP insertion or D1 synthesis. YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 dependent insertion of membrane proteins is evolutionary conserved among bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are challenged by the need to coordinate membrane integration of nuclear(More)
Photosynthesis occurs in thylakoids, a highly specialized membrane system. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803), the thylakoids are arranged parallel to the plasma membrane and occasionally converge towards it to form biogenesis centers. The initial steps in photosystem II (PSII) assembly are thought to take place(More)
Here, we describe the development of chloroplasts and the buildup of the thylakoid membranes in growing Arabidopsis leaves. Organelles were analyzed from three distinct positions, namely, at the tip, the upper leaf margin, and the base from leaves 1, 3, 5, and 7 of 14-day-old plants. Clear developmental gradients are described within a given leaf and(More)
A variety of eukaryotes, in particular plants, do not contain the required number of tRNAs to support the translation of mitochondria-encoded genes and thus need to import tRNAs from the cytosol. This study identified two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins, Tric1 and Tric2 (for tRNA import component), which on simultaneous inactivation by T-DNA(More)