Irene González-Menéndez

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Studies in the 1930s demonstrated that birds possess photoreceptors that are located within the hypothalamus and regulate photoperiodic responses to day length. Most recently, photoperiod has been shown to alter the activity of the pars tuberalis to release thyrotrophin, which ultimately drives a reproductive response. Despite these significant findings,(More)
Photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) respond to light from birth and represent the earliest known light detection system to develop in the mouse retina. A number of morphologically and functionally distinct subtypes of pRGCs have been described in the adult retina, and have been linked to different physiological roles. We have previously identified(More)
PURPOSE Mutations in the OPA1 gene cause autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), a visual disorder associated with degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, we characterized the disease progression in a homologous mouse model B6;C3-Opa1 329-355del and asked whether the pronounced cell death affects certain RGC types more than others. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE To study the melanopsin system of the albino CD1 mouse retina during postnatal development. METHODS Pups were kept under different ambient conditions: light/dark (LD) cycles, constant light (LL), constant darkness (DD), LL followed by LD, and DD followed by LL. Using immunohistochemistry, melanopsin-expressing cells were classified as M1 or M2(More)
Melanopsin, an opsin protein expressed in mammalian retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), makes them responsive to light. Such photosensitive RGCs form the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) that provides signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master regulator of circadian rhythms. The SCN is adjusted daily to the environmental day/night cycle by signal(More)
The melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are specialized in measuring irradiance for several functions, including daily photoentrainment and regulation of pupil size. In the present study, these cells were analyzed in mice during their perinatal period, from embryonic day (E) 15 to postnatal day (P) 1. Melanopsin expression was detected at E15 in(More)
In addition to some other functions, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) constitute the principal mediators of the circadian photoentrainment, a process by which the suprachiasmatic nucleus (the central clock of mammals), adjusts daily to the external day/night cycle. In the present study these RGCs were immunohistochemically labelled using(More)
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