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OBJECTIVE Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, which are involved with reward and motivation, are modulated by hormones that regulate food intake (insulin, leptin, and acyl ghrelin [AG]). We hypothesized that these hormones are associated with deficits in DA signaling in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We assessed the relationships between fasting levels(More)
This study replicated, in the subsequent academic year, teacher-reported prevalence rates for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on DSM-IV. Teachers in grades K-5 in a Tennessee county (10 schools, 214 teachers, and 4323 children) completed questionnaires on all their students consisting of the DSM-IV symptoms for disruptive behavior(More)
BACKGROUND Diminished dopaminergic neurotransmission contributes to decreased reward and negative eating behaviors in obesity. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for obesity and rapidly reduces hunger and improves satiety through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that dopaminergic neurotransmission would be enhanced after Roux-en-Y-Gastric(More)
Advances in genetic research have led to an increased understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships. Excessive eating and weight gain characteristic of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have been the understandable focus of much of the research. The intense preoccupation with food, lack of satiation, and incessant food seeking are among the most striking(More)
This study evaluates a measurement model for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The DSM-IV divides 18 symptoms into two groups, inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive. Elementary school teachers rated 21,161 children in 4 locations: Spain, Germany, urban US, and suburban US. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 2-factor model(More)
The presence and severity of compulsive behaviours may be evaluated via the Compulsive Behaviour Checklist (CBC) and this instrument has been successfully employed in people with intellectual disability. However, the applicability of the overall CBC scoring system, which entails tallying the number of behavioural categories represented (i.e. five) as well(More)
OBJECTIVE Early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is improvement in type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance. We determined the acute effects of RYGB, with and without omentectomy, on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. We also investigated whether preoperative diabetes or postoperative diabetes remission influenced(More)
This study examines the psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt AD/HD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale (VADTRS) and provides preliminary normative data from a large, geographically defined population. The VADTRS consists of the complete list of DSM-IV AD/HD symptoms, a screen for other disruptive behavior disorders, anxiety and depression, and ratings of(More)
OBJECTIVE Repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) range from motor stereotypy to immersion in restricted interests. The modified Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for children with autism spectrum disorder (CYBOCS-ASD) includes a Symptom Checklist (behavior present or absent) and 5 severity scales (Time Spent, Interference,(More)