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Xanthophylls participate in light harvesting and are essential in protecting the chloroplast from photooxidative damage. To investigate the roles of xanthophylls in photoprotection, we isolated and characterized extragenic suppressors of the npq1 lor1 double mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which lacks zeaxanthin and lutein and undergoes irreversible(More)
The involvement of excited and highly reactive intermediates in oxygenic photosynthesis inevitably results in the generation of reactive oxygen species. To protect the photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative damage, xanthophyll pigments are involved in the quenching of excited chlorophyll and reactive oxygen species, namely 1Chl*, 3Chl*, and 1O2*. Quenching(More)
We investigated the effect of photosynthetic electron transport and of the photosystem II (PSII) chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size on the rate of PSII photoinhibitory damage. To modulate the rate of photosynthesis and the light-harvesting capacity in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella salina Teod., we varied the amount of inorganic carbon in the culture(More)
When there is an imbalance between the light energy absorbed by a photosynthetic organism and that which can be utilized in photosynthesis, photo-oxidative stress can damage pigments, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. In this work we compared the wild type and a xanthophyll-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in their response to high amounts(More)
Excess light can impose severe oxidative stress on photosynthetic organisms. We have characterized high-light responses in wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in the npq1 lor1 double mutant. The npq1 lor1 strain lacks two photoprotective carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and experiences acute photo-oxidative stress upon exposure to excess light. To(More)
Tocopherols (vitamin E) comprise a class of lipid-soluble antioxidants synthesized only in plants, algae, and some cyanobacteria. The majority of tocopherols in photosynthetic cells is in the alpha form, which has the highest vitamin E activity in humans, whereas the beta, gamma, and delta forms normally account for a small percentage of total tocopherols.(More)
Senescence can be delayed in transgenic plants overexpressing the enzyme isopentenyltransferase (IPT) due to stress-induced increased levels of endogenous cytokinins. This trait leads to sustained photosynthetic activity and improved tolerance to abiotic stress. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize transgenic plants of maize (Zea mays L.)(More)
Somatic embryogenesis in scutella of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a well documented phenomenon and it has been shown through transcriptome analysis that genes involved in antioxidant responses, particularly in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, participate in the process. Thus, we investigated the influence of post-transcriptional silencing (PTGS) of the(More)
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