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We characterize through large-scale simulations the nonlinear elastic response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in torsion and bending. We identify a unified law consisting of two distinct power law regimes in the energy-deformation relation. This law encapsulates the complex mechanics of rippling and is described in terms of elastic constants, a(More)
A two-dimensional theoretical model for the field generated in the thermoelastic regime by line-focused laser illumination of a homogeneous, isotropic, linearly elastic half-space is presented. The model accounts for the effects of thermal diffusion and optical penetration, as well as the finite width and duration of the laser source. The model is obtained(More)
Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical effect coupling polarization to strain gradients. It fundamentally differs from piezoelectricity because of its size-dependence and symmetry. Flexoelectricity is generally perceived as a small effect noticeable only at the nanoscale. Since ferroelectric ceramics have a particularly high flexoelectric coefficient,(More)
In the present study we describe a simple and fast method to measure the concentration of total free amino acids in very small amounts of biological tissues. The procedure described here is based on the reaction of free amino acids with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) in the presence of a reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol (MET), to give a complex which can be(More)
A model for the Scanning Laser Source (SLS) technique is presented. The SLS is a novel laser based inspection method for the ultrasonic detection of small surfacebreaking cracks. The generated ultrasonic signal is monitored as a line-focused laser is scanned over the defect. Characteristic changes in the amplitude and the frequency content are observed. The(More)
We present a family of phase field models for fracture in piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials. These models couple a variational formulation of brittle fracture with, respectively, (1) the linear theory of piezoelectricity, and (2) a Ginzburg Landau model of the ferroelectric microstructure to address the full complexity of the fracture phenomenon in(More)
Crack propagation in brittle materials with anisotropic surface energy is important in applications involving single crystals, extruded polymers, or geological and organic materials. Furthermore, when this anisotropy is strong, the phenomenology of crack propagation becomes very rich, with forbidden crack propagation directions or complex sawtooth crack(More)
The conceptual simplicity and the ability of cohesive finite element models to describe complex fracture phenomena makes them often the approach of choice to study dynamic fracture. These models have proven to reproduce some experimental features, but to this point, no systematic study has validated their predictive ability; the difficulty in producing a(More)
Crack propagation during the indentation test of a ferroelectric single crystal is simulated using a phase-field model. This model is based on variational formulations of brittle crack propagation and domain evolution in ferroelectric materials. Due to the high compressive stresses near the indenter contact faces, a modified regularized formulation of the(More)
We report the observation of the self-guided propagation of 120 fs, 0.56 mJ infrared radiation in air for distances greater than 1 m. In contrast with the known case of filamentation, in the present experiment the laser power is lower than the collapse threshold. Therefore the counterbalance between Kerr self-focusing and ionization induced defocusing as(More)