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Cellular organization within a multicellular organism requires that a cell assess its relative location, taking in multiple cues from its microenvironment. Given that the extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of the most abundant proteins in animals and contributes both structure and elasticity to tissues, ECM probably provides key physical cues to cells. In(More)
Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in(More)
Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells depend on asymmetric division and polarized motility processes that in other cell types are modulated by nonmuscle myosin-II (MII) forces and matrix mechanics. Here, mass spectrometry-calibrated intracellular flow cytometry of human hematopoiesis reveals MIIB to be a major isoform that is strongly polarized in(More)
A stem cell niche is defined by various chemical and physical features that influence whether a stem cell remains quiescent, divides, or differentiates. We review mechanical determinants that affect cell fate through actomyosin forces, nucleoskeleton remodeling, and mechanosensitive translocation of transcription factors. Current methods for physical(More)
Cell migration through solid tissue often involves large contortions of the nucleus, but biological significance is largely unclear. The nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A varies both within and between cell types and was shown here to contribute to cell sorting and survival in migration through constraining micropores. Lamin-A proved rate-limiting in 3D(More)
The genome is virtually identical in all cells within an organism, with epigenetic changes contributing largely to the plasticity in gene expression during both development and aging. These changes include covalent modifications of chromatin components and altered chromatin organization as well as changes in other nuclear components, such as nuclear(More)
Adult stem cells and progenitors are of great interest for their clinical application as well as their potential to reveal deep sensitivities to microenvironmental factors. The bone marrow is a niche for at least two types of stem cells, and the prototype is the hematopoietic stem cell/progenitors (HSC/Ps), which have saved many thousands of patients for(More)
Genomic variation across cancers scales with tissue stiffness: meta-analyses show tumors in stiff tissues such as lung and bone exhibit up to 100-fold more variation than tumors in soft tissues such as marrow and brain. Here, nuclear lamina damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) result from invasive migration of cancer cells through stiff constrictions.(More)
Reversible janus associated kinase (JAK) inhibitors such as tofacitinib and decernotinib block cytokine signaling and are efficacious in treating autoimmune diseases. However, therapeutic doses are limited due to inhibition of other JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways associated with hematopoiesis, lipid biogenesis, infection, and(More)
Dysmorphic nuclei are commonly seen in cancers and provide strong motivation for studying the main structural proteins of nuclei, the lamins, in cancer. Past studies have also demonstrated the significance of microenvironment mechanics to cancer progression, which is extremely interesting because the lamina was recently shown to be mechanosensitive. Here,(More)