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A large amount of knowledge has been acquired since the original descriptions of Lyme borreliosis (LB) and of its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The complexity of the organism and the variations in the clinical manifestations of LB caused by the different B. burgdorferi sensu lato species were not then anticipated. Considerable(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) adapts to its arthropod and mammalian hosts by altering its transcriptional and antigenic profiles in response to environmental signals associated with each of these milieus. In studies presented here, we provide evidence to suggest that mammalian host signals are important for modulating and maintaining both the positive and(More)
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, has become the most common vector-borne disease in North America over the last three decades. To understand the dynamics of the epizootic spread and to predict the evolutionary trajectories of B. burgdorferi, accurate information on the population structure and the evolutionary(More)
Two-component systems (TCS) are universal among bacteria and play critical roles in gene regulation. Our understanding of the contributions of TCS in the biology of the Borrelia is just now beginning to develop. Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme disease, harbours a TCS comprised of open reading frames (ORFs) BB0419 and BB0420. BB0419 encodes a(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the United States. The genome of the type strain, B31, consists of a 910,725-bp linear chromosome and 21 linear and circular plasmids comprising 610,694 bp. During its life cycle, the spirochete exists in distinctly different environments, cycling(More)
BACKGROUND Lyme disease, the most common tickborne disease in the United States, is caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in North America. The present study evaluated the genotypes of >400 clinical isolates of B. burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban New York City with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it(More)
Variability of disease manifestations has been noted in patients with Lyme disease. A contributing factor to this variation may be the number of spirochetes present in infected patients. We evaluated clinical and laboratory findings for patients with erythema migrans with regard to the number of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms detected by quantitative PCR(More)
RecA is a key protein linking genetic recombination to DNA replication and repair in bacteria. Previous functional characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi RecA indicated that the protein is mainly involved in genetic recombination rather than DNA repair. Genetic recombination may play a role in B. burgdorferi persistence by generation of antigenic(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in nature within an enzootic cycle involving a mammalian reservoir and an Ixodes sp. tick vector. The transmission, survival and pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi depend on the bacterium's ability to modulate its transcriptome as it transits between vector and reservoir host. Herein, we(More)
BACKGROUND In September 2000, a physician in northern California described four patients with persistent, culture-negative boils on the lower extremities. The patients had received pedicures at the same nail salon. We identified and investigated an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis among customers of this nail salon. METHODS Patients were(More)