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The translation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) into Urdu was undertaken by the authors in committee. After examining initial drafts by 6 independent translators, an agreed Urdu text was given to 6 back-translators, and subsequently modified further. The evaluation of the new translation was performed in 3 stages: evaluation of(More)
Studies were carried out on 50 heroin addicts receiving heroin. Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)--to test thyroid function--as well as cortisol and testosterone were measured and compared with values of 25 normal males. Urine samples of addicts were tested for the presence of morphine. Heroin(More)
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), a disfiguring disease, is prevalent in many parts of Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan. Leishmaniasis is second only to malaria in terms of the number of people affected; it is a major public health issue with significant social stigma. Although the different methods to diagnose and treat the disease are well discussed in(More)
Among 600 medical clinic attenders in Lahore, Pakistan, screened using the Bradford Somatic Inventory in Urdu, significant differences in symptom endorsement between 'organic' and 'mood-disordered' patients were found in 14 BSI items. Counting only those symptoms reported as present on more than 15 days during the previous month, significant differences in(More)
While a number of risk factors have been identified for drug misuse in the United States, little evidence is available about such factors in other societies. This study attempted to identify risk factors in Pakistan. Ten of 11 sociodemographic variables which had previously been identified as predictors in the United States successfully differentiated(More)
BACKGROUND In areas of endemicity without sufficient laboratory infrastructure, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is often diagnosed on the basis of clinical characteristics, but parasitologic confirmation is essential to exclude erroneous diagnoses. We compared fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with the conventional method of excisional biopsy to assess(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and tolerability of paroxetine 20mg daily, for the treatment of depression and depression associated with anxiety. METHOD An open, non-comparative study undertaken at three centers in three cities of Pakistan. A total of 112 in- or out-patients, presenting with a major depressive episode were included in the study.(More)
Six hundred medical clinic attenders at the Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, were screened using the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI) in Urdu. The physicians' clinical diagnosis was recorded. The characteristics of mood-disordered, functional and no-diagnosis groups were compared with patients receiving organic diagnoses. Of the non-organic patients, only(More)
Background/Aims. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the skin in humans. The diagnosis of BCC is made clinically, which can then be confirmed microscopically. Biopsy or surgical excision of the lesion provides the specimen for histopathological examination, which is the mainstay for diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration cytology(More)
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