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"Germ granules" are cytoplasmic, nonmembrane-bound organelles unique to germline. Germ granules share components with the P bodies and stress granules of somatic cells, but also contain proteins and RNAs uniquely required for germ cell development. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of germ granule assembly, dynamics, and(More)
Mammalian spermiogenesis, a process where haploid male germ cells differentiate to become mature spermatozoa, entails dramatic morphological and biochemical changes including remodeling of the germ cell chromatin. Proteins that contain one or more plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers have been implicated in the regulation of chromatin structure and function.(More)
During mammalian spermatogenesis, the mouse VASA homolog (MVH; also known as DDX4), a germ-cell-specific DEAD-box type RNA-binding protein, localizes in a germline-specific RNA granule termed the chromatoid body (CB). Genetic analyses have revealed that MVH is essential for progression through spermatogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of its(More)
Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) is an association partner of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and is essential for clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking. Here, we report two novel functions of GAK: maintenance of proper centrosome maturation and of mitotic chromosome congression. Indeed, GAK knockdown by siRNA caused cell-cycle arrest at metaphase, which(More)
TISP40, a mouse spermatid-specific gene, encodes a CREB/CREM family transcription factor that is predominantly expressed during spermiogenesis. We report here that TISP40 generates two types of proteins, Tisp40alpha and Tisp40beta, both of which contain a transmembrane domain and localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In contrast, mutant proteins(More)
We have comprehensively identified the genes whose expressions are augmented in bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMC) from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) as compared with BMMCs from Osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and named them AURA after augmented in RA. Both stepwise subtractive hybridization and microarray analyses were used to identify(More)
Vasculitis (angiitis) is a systemic autoimmune disease that often causes fatal symptoms. We aimed to isolate cDNA markers that would be useful for diagnosing not only vasculitis but also other autoimmune diseases. For this purpose, we used stepwise subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray analyses to comprehensively isolate the genes whose expressions(More)
We previously reported that the spermatid-specific transcription factor Tisp40 functions through UPRE and CRE. To investigate Tisp40 function in vivo, we generated TISP40(-/-) mice. TISP40(-/-) mice were born at expected ratios, were healthy, and mutant males bred normally. However, the ER stress-response protein Grp78/BiP accumulated in the TISP40(-/-)(More)
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacylases that regulate numerous biological processes in response to the environment. SirT1 is the mammalian ortholog of yeast Sir2, and is involved in many metabolic pathways in somatic tissues. Whole body deletion of SirT1 alters reproductive function in oocytes and the testes, in part caused by defects in central(More)
Differentiation of germ cells is characterized by a remarkable degree of cellular restructuring and gene regulation that involves complex events of genomic and epigenetic reorganization. The pathways that govern miRNAs have been shown to play an important role in the male germ cell lineage. The chromatoid body is a finely filamentous, lobulated perinuclear(More)