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The use of the Escherichia coli enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter in gene expression studies is limited due to loss of activity during tissue fixation by glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde. We have directed the evolution of a GUS variant that is significantly more resistant to both glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde than the wild-type enzyme. A variant(More)
The Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) was evolved in vitro to catalyze the hydrolysis of a beta-galactoside substrate 500 times more efficiently (k(cat)/K(m)) than the wild-type, with a 52 million-fold inversion in specificity. The amino acid substitutions that recurred among 32 clones isolated in three rounds of DNA shuffling and screening were(More)
Aptamers are nucleic acid molecules that bind specific ligands. Barriers to the application of aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic reagents have been overcome in the past several years. In particular, aptamers that bind biomedically relevant targets have proven to be efficacious at modifying cellular metabolism. Such aptamers can be stabilized by(More)
We have proposed "attentive workbench (AWB)," an assembly cell that supports the production activities of human workers. Attentive workbench is composed of an augmented desk interface and self-moving trays with the Sawyer planar motors. In this paper, real assembly experiments using the implemented AWB system are carried out. The merit of the physical(More)
The tumor suppressor p53 is conformationally unstable at physiological temperature. Even the activated p53delta30 variant, which lacks the self-inhibiting carboxy terminal domain, has a half-life of only 8 min at 37 degrees C in vitro. We have developed a genetic approach to identify p53 variants that stabilize the active conformation. The human p53delta30(More)
The homeodomain is a DNA binding domain about 60 amino acids in length that occurs in many developmental regulatory proteins. Based on their degree of relatedness, homeodomain sequences have been grouped into 10 different families plus some unclassified sequences (1). Using a set of degenerate oligonucleotides (hom3 and en5) designed to anneal to(More)
The attentive workbench (AWB) is a new cell production system that supports human workers physically and informationally. Here we focus on physical assembly support through parts delivery, using automatically-moving parts trays. We quantitatively evaluated processing time in actual assembly experiments employing an implemented AWB system.