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Using dendroclimatical methods, we compared the growth response to climate fluctuations of three of the main Romanian Carpathian Mountains coniferous species, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), growing intermixed in a unique stand. Climate and soil conditions were therefore the same for(More)
A global increase in temperature could potentially increase the trees’ growth at high altitude and decrease at low altitude. Another immediate consequence would be an increase of the altitude threshold where the inversion of tree growth response to temperature occurs. The first network of 18 tree-ring chronologies of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from the(More)
Direct force measurements between oppositely charged latex particles in aqueous electrolyte solutions were carried out with a multiparticle colloidal probe technique based on atomic force microscopy. Force profiles between two dissimilarly charged surfaces can be only described when charge regulation effects are taken into account, while constant charge or(More)
Direct force measurements are used to obtain a comprehensive picture of interaction forces acting between charged colloidal particles in the presence of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. These measurements are achieved by the multi-particle colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM). This novel extension of the classical(More)
Polyelectrolytes adsorb strongly at oppositely charged surfaces, thereby dramatically influencing the corresponding interaction forces. In this letter, we report on direct force measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM) between two individual particles in an aqueous colloidal suspension in the presence of polyelectrolytes near the isoelectric(More)
A multi-particle colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the interaction forces between individual charged latex particles with adsorbed cationic poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers. The forces near the isoelectric point (IEP) were found to be attractive and stronger than van der Waals interactions. These(More)
The interaction forces between individual positively charged amidine functionalized latex particles with adsorbed negatively charged sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) were studied with the colloidal probe technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). When the polymer dose is progressively increased, the strength of the repulsive force between the particles(More)
The adsorption of poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (DADMAC) on planar silica substrates was examined as a function of ionic strength and pH. The study was carried out with reflectometry in an impinging-jet cell and complemented by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry investigations. The adsorption process is initially transport limited,(More)
Forces between individual colloidal particles can be measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM), and this technique permits the study of interactions between surfaces across aqueous solutions in great detail. The most relevant forces are described by the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory, and they include electrostatic double-layer(More)