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Detection and quantification of plant pathogens in the presence of inhibitory substances can be a challenge especially with plant and environmental samples. Real-time quantitative PCR has enabled high-throughput detection and quantification of pathogens; however, its quantitative use is linked to standardized reference materials, and its sensitivity to(More)
Nucleic acid-based tests for infectious diseases currently used in the clinical laboratory and in point-of-care devices are diverse. Measurement challenges associated with standardization of quantitative viral load testing are discussed in relation to human cytomegalovirus, BK virus, and Epstein-Barr virus, while the importance of defining the performance(More)
Equinatoxin II is a 179-amino-acid pore-forming protein isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Actinia equina. Large unilamellar vesicles and lipid monolayers of different lipid compositions have been used to study its interaction with membranes. The critical pressure for insertion is the same in monolayers made of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin(More)
Amyloid-induced toxicity is a well-known phenomenon but the molecular background remains unclear. One hypothesis relates toxicity to amyloid-membrane interactions, predicting that amyloid oligomers make pores into membranes. Therefore, the toxicity and membrane interaction of prefibrillar aggregates and individual oligomers of a non-pathological yet highly(More)
Hydroponic systems and intensive irrigation are used widely in horticulture and thus have the potential for rapid spread of water-transmissible plant pathogens. Numerous plant viruses have been reported to occur in aqueous environments, although information on their survival and transmission is minimal, due mainly to the lack of effective detection methods(More)
Equinatoxin II (EqtII) belongs to a unique family of 20-kDa pore-forming toxins from sea anemones. These toxins preferentially bind to membranes containing sphingomyelin and create cation-selective pores by oligomerization of 3-4 monomers. In this work we have studied the binding of EqtII to lipid membranes by the use of lipid monolayers and surface plasmon(More)
Water contamination by viruses has an increasing worldwide impact on human health, and has led to requirements for accurate and quantitative molecular tools. Here, we report the first one-step reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR-based absolute quantification of a RNA virus (rotavirus) in different types of surface water samples. This quantification(More)
Actinoporins are eukaryotic pore-forming proteins that create 2-nm pores in natural and model lipid membranes by the self-association of four monomers. The regions that undergo conformational change and form part of the transmembrane pore are currently being defined. It was shown recently that the N-terminal region (residues 10-28) of equinatoxin, an(More)
Digital PCR (dPCR) is being increasingly used for the quantification of sequence variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), due to its high accuracy and precision in comparison with techniques such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and melt curve analysis. To develop and evaluate dPCR for SNP detection using DNA, RNA, and clinical samples, an(More)
Equinatoxin-II is a eukaryotic pore-forming toxin belonging to the family of actinoporins. Its interaction with model membranes is largely modulated by the presence of sphingomyelin. We have used large unilamellar vesicles and lipid monolayers to gain further information about this interaction. The coexistence of gel and liquid-crystal lipid phases in(More)