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Detection and quantification of plant pathogens in the presence of inhibitory substances can be a challenge especially with plant and environmental samples. Real-time quantitative PCR has enabled high-throughput detection and quantification of pathogens; however, its quantitative use is linked to standardized reference materials, and its sensitivity to(More)
Sphingomyelin (SM) is abundant in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membrane, with the ability to concentrate in so-called lipid rafts. These specialized cholesterol-rich microdomains not only are associated with many physiological processes but also are exploited as cell entry points by pathogens and protein toxins. SM binding is thus a widespread and(More)
Actinoporins are potent eukaryotic pore-forming toxins specific for sphingomyelin-containing membranes. They are structurally similar to members of the fungal fruit-body lectin family that bind cell-surface exposed Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. In the present study we found a number of sequences in public databases with similarity to actinoporins. They(More)
Equinatoxin II is a 179-amino-acid pore-forming protein isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Actinia equina. Large unilamellar vesicles and lipid monolayers of different lipid compositions have been used to study its interaction with membranes. The critical pressure for insertion is the same in monolayers made of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin(More)
Rotaviruses are one of the major causes of diarrhea in infants and children under 5 years old, especially affecting developing countries. In natural disasters, fecal matter and potable waters can mix, allowing low, yet infective, concentrations of rotavirus to be present in water supplies, constituting a risk for the population. Any of the most commonly(More)
Water contamination by viruses has an increasing worldwide impact on human health, and has led to requirements for accurate and quantitative molecular tools. Here, we report the first one-step reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR-based absolute quantification of a RNA virus (rotavirus) in different types of surface water samples. This quantification(More)
Digital PCR (dPCR) is being increasingly used for the quantification of sequence variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), due to its high accuracy and precision in comparison with techniques such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) and melt curve analysis. To develop and evaluate dPCR for SNP detection using DNA, RNA, and clinical samples, an(More)
The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic(More)
Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) is considered as an important source of surface water contamination by enteric pathogens. In this study, we describe the occurrence of enteric viruses (group A rotaviruses, noroviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, hepatitis A virus, and hepatitis E virus) and Clostridium difficile in the effluent of a wastewater treatment(More)
The emergence of next-generation "deep" sequencing has enabled the study of virus populations with much higher resolutions. This new tool increases the possibility of observing mixed infections caused by combinations of plant viruses, which are likely to occur more frequently than previously thought. The biological impact of co-infecting viruses on their(More)
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