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This paper addresses the frame problem for programming theories that support both sharing and encapsulation through specification variables. The concept of dynamic frames is introduced. It is shown how a programming theory with dynamic frames supports both features, without the use of alias control or any other kind of restriction. In contrast, other(More)
SUMMARY The embedding of a small but expressive language of multidimensional functional programming in a well known and widely used language of object-oriented programming leads to the combination of two radically different programming models. In this paper, we formally define the syntax and semantics of GLU , which can be thought of as the multidimensional(More)
In the verification of programs that manipulate the heap, logics that emphasize localized reasoning, such as separation logic, are being used extensively. In such logics, state conditions may only refer to parts of the heap that are reachable from the stack. However, the correct implementation of some data structures is based on state conditions that depend(More)
In formal design, decoupling means to make the features of a formal system as independent as possible from each other. Decou-pling tends to make the features semantically more primitive and the overall system more general. Quite opposite to decoupling, the tradition in object oriented refinement theories is to combine all features, such as specification,(More)
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