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During evolution two general systems of immunity have emerged: innate or, natural immunity and adaptive (acquired), or specific immunity. The innate system is phylogenetically older and is found in some form in all multicellular organisms, whereas the adaptive system appeared about 450 million years ago and is found in all vertebrates except jawless fish.(More)
The beta 2 integrin CR3 is a leukocyte adhesion heterodimeric glycoprotein which functions both as receptor for iC3b and in several cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion interactions. In order to elucidate the molecular evolution of the CR3 receptor, here we report the cloning and characterization of its beta2 (CD18) and aM (CD11b) subunits in rainbow trout(More)
We have previously identified and characterized three distinct trout C3 proteins (C3-1, C3-3 and C3-4) that differ in their electrophoretic mobility, glycosylation patterns, reactivity with monospecific C3 antibodies, partial amino acid sequence and binding to various complement activators. To study the structural elements that determine the observed(More)
Mechanical loading factors at the bone-implant interface are critical for the osseointegration and clinical success of the implant. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of mechanical strain on the orthopedic biomaterial Ti-6Al-4V/osteoblast interface, using an in vitro model. Homogeneous strain was applied to human bone marrow(More)
In all other species analyzed to date, the functionally active form of complement component C3 exists as the product of a single gene. We have now identified and characterized three functional C3 proteins (C3-1, C3-3, and C3-4) in trout that are the products of at least two distinct C3 genes. All three proteins are composed of an alpha-and a beta-chain and(More)
The factor B (Bf) and C2 complement genes are closely linked within the MHC class III region and are thought to have arisen by gene duplication from a single gene encoding an ancestral molecule; the animal phyla in which this duplication event took place is unknown. Two teleost fish, (zebrafish and medaka fish) have each been shown to possess only a single(More)
The complement component C5 plays important roles in inflammatory responses and complement-mediated cytolysis. In bony fish, although C5 has been identified at the DNA or the protein level in trout, carp and gilthead seabream, only partial C5 sequences are available. The present study was designed to obtain the complete primary structure of C5 from the(More)
To gain further insight into the evolutionary history of the complement proteins C3, C4, and C5 we have now cloned the fifth component of complement from a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cDNA library; this is the first report of C5 cloning in a species other than human and mouse. The deduced amino acid sequence of a partial cDNA clone (2.25kb),(More)
Unlike mammalian species, several cold-blooded species have been shown to possess multiple forms of complement components. The multiple forms of C3 characterized in several fish species can bind with different specificities to various complement-activating surfaces. Here, Oriol Sunyer, Ioannis Zarkadis and John Lambris explore the possible advantages(More)
A photoreactive analogue of spermine, N1-azidobenzamidino (ABA)-spermine, was covalently attached after irradiation to Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits or naked 16S rRNA. By means of RNase H digestion and primer extension, the cross-linking sites of ABA-spermine in naked 16S rRNA were characterised and compared with those identified in 30S subunits.(More)