Ioannis Ilias

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CONTEXT Ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) is difficult to diagnose and treat. We present our experience with EAS from 1983 to 2004. SETTING The study was performed at a tertiary care clinical research center. PATIENTS Ninety patients, aged 8-72 yr, including 48 females were included in the study. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME MEASURES Tests included 8 mg(More)
Malignant phaeochromocytomas are rare tumours accounting for ~10% of all phaeochromocytomas; the prevalence of malignancy among paragangliomas is higher, especially those associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene mutations. Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops(More)
The principal modulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Corticotropin-releasing hormone is not exclusively produced in the hypothalamus. Its presence has been demonstrated at peripheral inflammatory sites. Ovulation and luteolysis bear characteristics of an aseptic(More)
Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) (1–3) are catecholamineproducing tumors that arise from chromaffin cells. PHEO are mostly situated within the adrenal medulla, although in about 9–23% of cases, tumors develop from extraadrenal chromaffin tissue (adjacent to sympathetic ganglia of the neck, mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis) and are often referred to as(More)
Conventional imaging modalities cannot localize the source of ACTH in 30-50% of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). We prospectively evaluated whether [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) or [(111)In]-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-D-Phe-pentetreotide (OCT) at higher than standard doses(More)
Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours. Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas. When lesions cannot be characterised adequately with CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation (with T1- and(More)
OBJECTIVE Perioperative pituitary-adrenal responses after major abdominal surgery have not been well characterized. The aim of the present study was to further clarify perioperative pituitary-adrenal responses. DESIGN Thirty-six patients (20 men), aged 68+/-10 years (mean+/-SD), undergoing major abdominal operations were studied. Total cortisol (TC),(More)
Cushing's syndrome results from sustained pathologic hypercortisolism caused by excessive corticotropin (ACTH) secretion by tumors in the pituitary gland (Cushing's disease, 70%) or elsewhere (15%), or by ACTH-independent cortisol secretion from adrenal tumors (15%). The clinical features are variable, and no single pattern is seen in all patients. Those(More)
BACKGROUND Intensivists and nursing staff are often reluctant to admit patients with cancer to the intensive care unit even though these patients' survival rate has improved since the 1980s. OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with mortality in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit and to assess and compare the effectiveness of 3(More)
Although in the majority of patients with pheochromocytoma the tumor is localized in the adrenal, up to 26% of patients have malignant/metastatic disease. Metastatic disease should be ruled out before initial surgery is attempted. Anatomical imaging modalities (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) should be done first over the adrenals, and if(More)