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To determine whether and how laboratory and natural selection act on the hsp70 (70-Kd heat-shock protein) genes of Drosophila melanogaster, we examined hsp70 allele frequencies in two sets of populations. First, five populations reared at different temperatures for more than 20 years differentially fixed both a large insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism(More)
Educating dendritic cells (DC) to become tolerogenic DC, which promote regulatory IL-10 immune responses, represents an effective immune evasion strategy for pathogens. Yersinia pestis virulence factor LcrV is reported to induce IL-10 production via interaction with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. However, TLR2-/- mice are not protected against subcutaneous(More)
Osteoblasts not only control bone formation but also support osteoclast differentiation. Here we show the involvement of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) in the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. KLF4 was down-regulated by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in osteoblasts. Overexpression of KLF4 in osteoblasts attenuated 1,25(OH)2D3-induced(More)
Despite the advances in biomedical research and clinical applications, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Given the limitations of conventional chemotherapeutics, including serious toxicities and reduced quality of life for patients, the development of safe and efficacious alternatives with known mechanism of action is much needed.(More)
Osteoclasts are unique cells responsible for the resorption of bone matrix. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of miR-26a in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. The expression of miR-26a was up-regulated by RANKL at the late stage of osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of(More)
Human PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10; a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was oxidized in a time- and H(2)O(2)-concentration-dependent manner. Oxidized hPTEN was reduced by cellular reductants as in human cells. The reduction rate of oxidized hPTEN was monitored in S. cerevisiae mutants(More)
Among the diverse cytokines involved in osteoclast differentiation, interleukin (IL)-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) by IL-3(More)
Semitransparent front electrodes for polymer solar cells, that are printable and roll-to-roll processable under ambient conditions using different approaches, are explored in this report. The excellent smoothness of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes has traditionally been believed to be difficult to achieve using printed front grids, as surface topographies(More)
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reversibly oxidized by hydrogen peroxide and reduced by cellular reductants. Reduction of hPTEN was delayed in each of S. cerevisiae gsh1Delta and gsh2Delta mutants. Expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase Gsh1 in the gsh1Delta mutant rescued(More)
RANKL induces the formation of osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption. Herein, we investigated the role of SWAP-70-like adapter of T cells (SLAT) in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Expression levels of SLAT were reduced during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of SLAT in BMMs inhibited TRAP-positive multinuclear osteoclast(More)