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This study was designed to conduct genomic analysis in two steps, such as the overall relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis of the five virus species in the orthomyxoviridae family, and more intensive pattern analysis of the four subtypes of influenza A virus (H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, and H5N1) which were isolated from human population. All the subtypes(More)
To investigate the genomic properties of HIV-1, we collected 3,081 sequences from the HIV Sequence Database. The sequences were categorized according to sampling region, country, year, subtype, gene name, and sequence and were saved in a database constructed for this study. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values of matrix, capsid, and gp120 and(More)
This study investigated genetic variations in eight major genes (hemagglutinin, HA; neuraminidase, NA; matrix protein, MP; non-structural protein, NS; nucleoprotein, NP; polymerase, PA; PA basic protein 1, PB1; and PA basic protein 2, PB2) of the influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) to determine the evolutionary pattern in codon bias. A total of 6,881(More)
To investigate the genomic patterns of influenza A virus subtypes, such as H3N2, H9N2, and H5N1, we collected 1842 sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from the NCBI database and parsed them into 7 categories: accession number, host species, sampling year, country, subtype, gene name, and sequence. The sequences that were isolated from the(More)
Prion proteins (PrPs) are infectious pathogens that cause a group of invariably fatal, neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, by means of an entirely novel mechanism. They are produced by various species, including reptile, rodent, ruminant and mammals, during normal metabolic processes, but they can be slowly changed into(More)
OBJECTIVES Since the first human infection from avian influenza was reported in Hong Kong in 1997, many Asian countries have confirmed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses. In addition to Asian countries, the EU authorities also held an urgent meeting in February 2006 at which it was agreed that Europe could also become the next(More)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are single-stranded RNA viruses which contain the largest RNA genomes, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a newly found group 2 CoV, emerged as infectious disease with high mortality rate. In this study, we compared the synonymous codon usage patterns between the nucleocapsid and spike genes of CoVs, and(More)
Since the first pandemic outbreak of avian influenza A virus (H5N1 subtype) in 1997, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has provided a large number of influenza virus sequences with well-organized annotations. Using the time-series sequences of influenza A viruses, we developed a simulation tool for influenza virus, named SimFlu, to(More)
In this study, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the changes of selection potentials of codons in influenza A/H1N1 from 1999 to 2009. We artificially generated the sequences by using the transition matrices of positively selected codons over time, and their similarities against the database of influenzavirus A genus were determined by BLAST(More)
Structural information has been a major concern for biological and pharmaceutical studies for its intimate relationship to the function of a protein. Three-dimensional representation of the positions of protein atoms is utilized among many structural information repositories that have been published. The reliability of the torsional system, which represents(More)