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Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement is of potential therapeutic value. To investigate the precise attentional function(s) affected and their neuronal mechanisms, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used an attention task in which subjects responded to stimuli of high (INT(high)) or low intensity presented randomly in one of(More)
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) expression was shown to be protective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism by which PXR provides protection remains unclear. Wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated with the PXR agonist pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile or vehicle and administered 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water to induce(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) controls the synthesis and transport of bile acids (BAs). Mice lacking expression of FXR, designated Fxr-null, have elevated levels of serum and hepatic BAs and an increase in BA pool size. Surprisingly, at 12 months of age, male and female Fxr-null mice had a high incidence of degenerative hepatic lesions, altered cell foci(More)
The reactive alpha-oxoaldehydes such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG) are generated in vivo from sugars through oxidative stress. GO and MG are believed to be removed from cells by glutathione-dependent glyoxalases and other aldehyde reductases. We isolated a number of GO-resistant (GO(r)) mutants from Escherichia coli strain MG1655 on LB plates(More)
Human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3/SLC22A8) is predominantly expressed in the proximal tubules of the kidney and plays a major role in the urinary excretion of a variety of organic anions. The promoter region of hOAT3 was characterized to elucidate the mechanism underlying the tissue-specific expression of hOAT3. The minimal promoter of hOAT3 was(More)
One of the transduction mechanisms for the chemoreception of fat has been proposed to involve the inhibition of delayed rectifying potassium (DRK) channels by polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFAs). In the present study we have compared the responsiveness of fungiform taste receptor cells (TRCs) to fatty acids in obesity-prone (Osborne-Mendel; O-M) and(More)
Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by coordinate regulation of cholesterol synthesis and its conversion to bile acids in the liver. The excretion of cholesterol from liver and intestine is regulated by ATP-binding cassette half-transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8. The genes for these two proteins are closely linked and divergently transcribed from a common(More)
Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1/SLC22A6) is predominantly expressed in the proximal tubules of the kidney. Cumulative studies have shown its critical role in the tubular secretion of a variety of organic anions, including several clinically important drugs. In addition, OAT1 is also involved in the pharmacological effect of diuretics and the(More)
Bile acid concentrations are controlled by a feedback regulatory pathway whereby activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) represses transcription of both the CYP7A1 gene, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway, and the CYP8B1 gene, required for synthesis of cholic acid. The tissue-specific roles of FXR were examined(More)
Hsp31 encoded by hchA is known as a heat-inducible molecular chaperone. Although structure studies revealed that Hsp31 has a putative catalytic triad consisting of Asp-214, His-186 and Cys-185, its enzymatic function, besides weak amino-peptidase activity, is still unknown. We found that Hsp31 displays glyoxalase activity that catalyses the conversion of(More)