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The association of neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-immunoreactive (IR) axon terminals with TRH-synthesizing neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been studied. Immunocytochemical single and double labeling studies were performed at both light and electron microscopic levels using antiserum to NPY and, as a marker of TRH-containing neurons,(More)
Because cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) coexists with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the arcuate nucleus neurons and we have recently demonstrated that alpha-MSH innervates TRH-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), we raised the possibility that CART may also be contained in fibers(More)
We studied the distribution of pro- TRH mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry using radiolabeled single stranded cRNA probes to confirm the hypothesis that the TRH precursor is distributed beyond regions that contain immunoreactive TRH. All regions of the central nervous system previously recognized to contain TRH showed hybridization.(More)
Thyroid hormone is important in the regulation of synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary, but its role in the control of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is controversial. To determine whether thyroid hormone regulates the function of TRH in the hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular system, a study(More)
In diandric sex-reversing fishes, sexually active males and females (primary phase) regularly transform into an alternative reproductive morph, terminal-phase males, that are morphologically and behaviorally distinct. The transformation from primary to terminal phase is associated with a twofold increase in the number of luteinizing hormone-releasing(More)
The neuropeptide thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is capable of influencing both neuronal mechanisms in the brain and the activity of the pituitary-thyroid endocrine axis. By the use of immunocytochemical techniques, first the ultrastructural features of TRH-immunoreactive (IR) perikarya and neuronal processes were studied, and then the relationship(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a hypothalamic tripeptide that stimulates the secretion of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone in mammalian species and is widely distributed throughout the brain of vertebrates, is present in the skin of the frog (Rana pipiens) in concentrations twice that found in the hypothalamus of this amphibian. A skin extract shows(More)
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a selective neurotoxin used to induce apoptosis in catecholamine-containing neurons. Although biochemical products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of 6-OHDA have been well documented, the activation of cellular pathways following exposure are not well understood. Apoptosis in PC12 (Pheochromocytoma) cells was induced by(More)
To characterize the precursor of mammalian thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a rat hypothalamic lambda gt11 library was screened with an antiserum directed against a synthetic peptide representing a portion of the rat TRH prohormone. The nucleotide sequence of the immunopositive complementary DNA encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 29,247. This(More)
Thyroid hormone administered systemically exerts negative feedback control of biosynthesis of the TRH pro-hormone in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the origin of neurons that regulate anterior pituitary TSH secretion, but not in any other group of TRH-synthesizing neurons in the brain. To determine whether this response is mediated by(More)