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Accumulation of cerebral amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is essential for developing synaptic and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. However, the physiological functions of Abeta, as well as the primary mechanisms that initiate early Abeta-mediated synaptic dysfunctions, remain largely unknown. Here we examine the acute effects of endogenously released(More)
Learning and memory are fundamental brain functions affected by dietary and environmental factors. Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, MgT) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats. The pattern completion ability was(More)
Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), the proteolytic products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), induces a variety of synaptic dysfunctions ranging from hyperactivity to depression that are thought to cause cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. While depression of synaptic transmission has been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying(More)
The plasticity of synapses within neural circuits is regulated by activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Using the dye FM1-43 to directly image presynaptic function, we found that large numbers of presynaptic terminals in hippocampal cultures have a low release probability. While these terminals were not readily modifiable, a transient but(More)
Accumulated genetic evidence suggests that attenuation of the ratio between cerebral amyloid-β Aβ40 and Aβ42 isoforms is central to familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pathogenesis. However, FAD mutations account for only 1-2% of Alzheimer's disease cases, leaving the experience-dependent mechanisms regulating Aβ40/42 an enigma. Here we explored regulation(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are essential components of biological sensors that detect changes in the environment in response to a myriad of stimuli. A major difficulty in the study of TRP channels is the lack of pharmacological agents that modulate most members of the TRP superfamily. Notable exceptions are the thermoTRPs, which respond to(More)
Stabilization of neuronal activity by homeostatic control systems is fundamental for proper functioning of neural circuits. Failure in neuronal homeostasis has been hypothesized to underlie common pathophysiological mechanisms in a variety of brain disorders. However, the key molecules regulating homeostasis in central mammalian neural circuits remain(More)
Neuronal circuits' ability to maintain the delicate balance between stability and flexibility in changing environments is critical for normal neuronal functioning. However, to what extent individual neurons and neuronal populations maintain internal firing properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that distributions of spontaneous(More)
It is now more than a decade since Aβ was first shown to be a normal, soluble product of neuronal metabolism 1–3. However, its physiological role in neuronal function remains elusive. Aβ is produced by sequential limited proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) conducted by two aspartyl proteases, β-and γ-secretase 4,5. The production and(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common adult onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. There is currently no effective treatment for ALS and our understanding of the pathological mechanism is still far away from prevention and/or treatment of this devastating disease. Amyloid(More)