Inmaculada Gómez de Aranda

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Neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles, where they have been assumed to be in free solution. Here we report that in Torpedo synaptic vesicles, only 5% of the total acetylcholine (ACh) or ATP content is free, and that the rest is adsorbed to an intravesicular proteoglycan matrix. This matrix, which controls ACh and ATP release by an ion-exchange(More)
Evidence is provided to show that synaptic vesicles have an internal matrix. Suspensions of cholinergic synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata fish were permeabilized in solutions containing low concentrations of Na(+) or Ca(2+). The release of ATP from the vesicular matrix was 10 times more effective with Ca(2+) than with(More)
The synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family of proteins, which are essential for neurotransmitter release, are the vesicle donor soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE) proteins first described in synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. Two synaptobrevin/VAMP isoforms are involved in(More)
1. The role of ATP, which is co-released with acetylcholine in synaptic contacts of Torpedo electric organ, was investigated by use of suramin. Suramin [8-(3-benzamido-4-methylbenzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulphoni c acid], a P2 purinoceptor antagonist, potently inhibited in a non-competitive manner the ecto-apyrase activity associated with plasma membrane(More)
Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes presupposes the expression of the glucose transporter isoform GLUT4 and the acquisition of insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation from intracellular storage vesicles to plasma membrane. This ability to translocate GLUT4 depends on the presence of a set of proteins of the SNARE category that are essential in the(More)
The diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolase present in presynaptic plasma membranes from the Torpedo electric organ has been characterized using fluorogenic substrates of the form di-(1, N6-ethenoadenosine) 5',5'''-P1,Pn-polyphosphate. The enzyme hydrolyses diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, where n=3-5), producing AMP and the corresponding adenosine (n-1)(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that neurotrophins may be involved in pituitary function. By immunocytochemical methods we analyzed the cellular distribution of their functional receptors in the pituitary gland. In the rat pituitary gland Trks were differentially distributed. Punctate immunoreactivity for TrkA was observed within the neural lobe, whereas(More)
It has been shown previously that ATP is released into extracellular space from pre- and postsynaptic sources in peripheral synapses. The extracellular metabolism of ATP is likely to affect nucleotide- and nucleoside-mediated regulation of neurotransmission. The enzymes responsible for ATP breakdown are nucleotidases whose active site faces the(More)
SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of mol. wt 25,000) is an essential component for neurotransmitter release, and its expression has been related to the plastic responses that follow CNS injury. In the present study, transient induction of SNAP-25 in selected brain areas is shown by immunohistochemistry at short times after a single intraperitoneal(More)
Bis(7)-tacrine is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in which two tacrine molecules are linked by a heptylene chain. We tested the effects of bis(7)-tacrine on the spontaneous synaptic activity. Miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) were recorded extracellularly on slices of electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. Bis(7)-tacrine, at a concentration of 100(More)