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Based on the memory for the re-expression of certain cytokine genes, different subsets of Th cells have been defined. In Th type 1 (Th1) and Th2 memory lymphocytes, the genes for the cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 are imprinted for expression upon restimulation by the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3, respectively,(More)
Th1 cells are prominent in inflamed tissue, survive conventional immunosuppression, and are believed to play a pivotal role in driving chronic inflammation. Here, we identify homeobox only protein (Hopx) as a critical and selective regulator of the survival of Th1 effector/memory cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of Hopx is induced by T-bet and(More)
Bacterial DNA and oligonucleotides (ODN) containing CpG-motifs strongly activate cells of the immune system. Accordingly CpG-DNA is a powerful adjuvant in vaccination protocols for B-cell as well as for cytotoxic T-cell responses. A decisive propensity of CpG-DNA is its capacity to induce preferentially T helper type 1 (Th1)-dominated immune responses. To(More)
Th1 and Th17 cells are distinct lineages of effector/memory cells, imprinted for re-expression of IFN-γ and IL-17, by upregulated expression of T-bet and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt), respectively. Apparently, Th1 and Th17 cells share tasks in the control of inflammatory immune responses. Th cells coexpressing IFN-γ and IL-17 have been(More)
T cells of both the CD4 and CD8 lineage are commonly found in affected tissues of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but understanding the contribution of these cells to immunopathogenesis remains challenging. Given recent advances in identifying more myositis-associated autoantibodies and their putative targets, we suggest that studies on(More)
Experiments with slices of human kidney cortex from two control subjects demonstrated two distinct transport systems for lysine (alpha and beta) which differ greatly in affinity and capacity. Both systems were found in kidney from two patients with cystinuria. Studies with rat kidney confirmed these findings. These experiments defined only a single(More)
SUMMARY Rabbit renal tubule segments, prepared by collagenase digestion, were used to study glycine transport. A distinct two-limbed curve found when studying the effects of sub-strate concentration on transport indicated the presence of at least two transport systems for glycine. These systems could not be distinguished by their response to metabolic(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate recognition of microbial components. Despite activation of a shared set of signal transduction molecules, the biological effects of certain TLR agonists differ considerably. In macrophages and dendritic cells, stimulation by the prototypical stimuli CpG-DNA (TLR9), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA;(More)