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The extent to which pancreatic juice can contaminate bile collected from a rat with a biliary fistula has been investigated by cannulating the bile duct proximal to either the duodenum or the liver, and by stimulating pancreatic flow with secretin. Bile collected via a fistula proximal to the duodenum showed marked pancreatic contamination. Thus, bile(More)
This essay explores new models of the citizen-patient by attending to the post-Revolutionary blind 'voice'. Voice, in both a literal and figurative sense, was central to the way in which members of the Hospice des Quinze-Vingts, an institution for the blind and partially sighted, interacted with those in the community. Musical voices had been used by(More)
Benjamin Martin, the English natural philosopher, and Claude-Nicolas Le Cat, the French surgeon, both published important work on auditory physiology and function in the mid-eighteenth century. Despite their different backgrounds, there was consensus between the two scholars on key principles of hearing research, most notably the importance of the inner ear(More)
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